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            Audit of Anti-Semitic Incidents 1995

                        Presented by

     The League For Human Rights of  B'nai Brith Canada

                                     League for Human Rights
                                Lyle Smordin, National Chair
                        Rochelle Wilner, National Vice-Chair
                                Mark Sandler, Senior Counsel
                           Dr. Karen Mock, National Director
                                          B'nai Brith Canada
                            Brian Morris, National President
                      Frank Dimant, Executive Vice-President
                   Pearl Gladman, Director of Field Services
               Rubin Friedman, Government Relations Director

This  report  was  prepared  by  Dr.  Karen  Mock,  National
Director of the League for Human Rights, with ssistance from
Richard  J  Berman.   Some text in this volume was extracted
from previous publications of the League.

We  are  grateful to the volunteers, students and staff  for
their contribution both to this report and to the continuing
work  of  the League for Human Rights.   We also acknowledge
the  invaluable  contributions of everyone who  assisted  us
with the collection of data for this edition of the Audit of
Anti-Semitic Incidents.  Special thanks are due to the  Hate
Crimes  Units in Montreal, Ottawa, Toronto and Winnipeg  for
their co-operation and their ongoing efforts to combat  hate
and bias crime in Canada.

No part of this book may be produced or utilized in any form
or   by  any  means,  electronic  or  mechanical,  including
photocopying or recording, or by any information storage  or
retrieval system, without permission in   writing  from  the

(c) 1996 League for Human Rights
B'nai Brith Canada

15 Hove Street, Downsview Ontario M3H 4Y8
Tel:(416) 633-6224  Fax:(416) 630-2159

Table of Contents



   Nature of Incidents by Year
   Geographic Distribution of Incidents
   From Coast to Coast - Highlights of Specific Incidents

   The State of the Neo-Nazi Right.
   The Current Climate - Highlights of Issues and Trends.
   The Climate in Quebec.
      Anti-Semitism in the Media.
      Documentaries Highlight Hate.
      Missionaries Target Canada's Jews .
      The Internet: The Battle (Flame War?) Heats Up

   Education and Research
   Legal/Legislative Initiatives.
   Community Partnerships .


   Incident Reporting Form.

   Table 1      - Nature of Incidents by Year
   Figure 1     - Nature of Incidents by Year
   Figure 1 (a) - Number of Incidents - Three Year Average
   Figure I (b) - Incidents of Vandalism by Year.
   Figure 1 (c) - Incidents of Harassment by Year
   Figure 2     - Geographic Distribution of Incidents.
   Table  2     - Geographic Distribution of Incidents.


B'nai  Brith Canada has been at the forefront of the  battle
against  anti-Semitism, racism and bigotry for more  than  a
century.   Through the League for Human Rights, B'nai  Brith
monitors  the  activities  of  hate  groups  in  Canada  and
documents  all  reported incidents  of  anti-Semitism.   The
Audit  of  Anti-Semitic Incidents, published annually  since
1982 by the League for Human Rights, is a major vehicle  for
reporting our findings to the public.

In 1995, incidents of anti-Semitism continued to become more
diffuse  in nature. Whereas trends in hatred    and  bigotry
directed at Canada's Jews between 1991 and 1993 were  linked
to  specific activities, including the Gulf War and the rise
of  the  Heritage Front and other neo-Nazi groups in Canada,
the  last two years have seen a more random pattern of anti-
Semitism in this country.

Despite  the  decline  of organized hate  activity,  several
"mainstream"  incidents of anti-Semitism in  the  last  year
proved to be equally disturbing.  In September, two Toronto-
based   radio   broadcasters  made  overtly     anti-Semitic
comments   over   the   public  airwaves.    Although   both
commentators apologized for their remarks,    the fact  that
they  felt comfortable enough to air their biased views,  as
did  several  journalists  in  various  communities  and  on
campuses across the country, is a matter of serious  concern
for Canadian Jews.

In October and November, the Quebec referendum also produced
a   flurry   of  bigotry  directed  at  the  non-Francophone
population of the province.  Jacques Parizeau, who was  then
premier  of Quebec, lashed out at "the ethnic vote" for  the
narrow  losses of his separatist forces.  In earlier  stages
of   the   referendum     campaign,  Pierre   Bourgault,   a
communications  advisor  to  Parizeau,  cryptically   warned
Quebec  Jews  of "a    dangerous situation" if  they  openly
supported the federalist side.

The  significance  of  these events  cannot  be  overstated.
While the comments made by the politicians or the
broadcasters  were by no means as virulently  intolerant  as
the  charged  rhetoric of the neo-Nazi right, their  remarks
served  as  signals  that expressions  of  hatred  and  bias
against  Jews  and  other minorities were     acceptable  in
contemporary  Canadian culture.  For political  leaders  and
media personalities to espouse views hostile to Jews gives a
message  to the general population: anti-Semitism  continues
to  be  part  of  the canon of our culture.  The  press  and
politicians set the tone and terms of debate in our free and
democratic  state. They have the responsibility to  condemn,
not  to promote, racism.  Unfortunately, in 1995, this ideal
was seriously compromised.

Despite  these  cases,  positive steps  have  been  made  in
fighting  anti-Semitism, racism and bigotry in  Canada  this
year.  The influence and impact of neo-Nazi groups continues
to  sputter as a result of the legal troubles of many of the
movement's  leaders  and by a lack of available  money.   In
1995,  George Burdi, Dan Sims and Wolfgang Droege all served
time in jail, which served to hamper the recruitment efforts
of the racist-right.

New  legislation,  including the  controversial  Bill  C-41,
passed the House of Commons and the Senate, clearing the way
for  sentence enhancement for perpetrators of hate-motivated
crimes.  This law recognizes
the   serious   impact  of  crimes  directed   at   minority
communities, and provides for penalties which reflect the
increased severity of the offenses.

Despite these positive developments, Holocaust denier  Ernst
Zundel  is  continuing his worldwide distribution  of  anti-
Semitic  books, tracts and electronic broadcasts  from   his
headquarters  in  downtown Toronto.  The pace  of  spreading
hate  and Holocaust denial via the Internet is speeding  up,
and  Jewish-owned homes and businesses, as well  as  schools
and  synagogues,  continue to be targets for  vandalism  and

The  annual Audit of Anti-Semitic Incidents has been praised
by   community   organizations,  police   departments,   and
government  agencies  from  across  Canada  as  a   valuable
resource in the battle against racism and hate activity.  By
providing  an analysis of the nature and extent of  reported
anti-Semitic activity in Canada, the Audit provides a  model
for  data collection and analysis, and helps guide decisions
in  resource allocation, legislative development, and  plans
for   formal  educational  initiatives  to  confront  racist
attitudes and to sensitize all Canadians to the problems  of
hatred and intolerance.


The  annual Audit of Anti-Semitic Incidents is a  record  of
reported  incidents  only.   The  Audit  depends  on     the
voluntary reporting of anti-Semitic incidents to the  League
for  Human  Rights  through  B'nai  Brith  offices  and  the
nationwide B'nai Brith Lodge network. Recorded incidents may
have  been  reported by victims directly to our offices,  or
may  have  been  reported by other sources. Experts  in  the
analysis of crime, including officers in police intelligence
units,  suggest  that  only  a  small  percentage  (in   the
neighbourhood  of  approximately  10%)  of  hate  crimes  or
harassment are ever reported to any source. The situation is
akin   to  spousal  or  child  abuse,  both  of  which   are
notoriously under-reported.

Reported  incidents  are documented and analyzed  by  League
staff  for  corroboration, and to  determine     appropriate
courses   of  action.  Proper  investigation  is  vital   to
determine whether reported incidents are    indeed racially-
motivated, and whether they are anti-Semitic in nature.  For
example, harassment of a Jewish person in the workplace  may
be  real but may not be anti-Semitic. As well, while general
pamphleteering  by  a hate group will be  condemned  by  the
League,  and  while the League will be actively involved  in
countering  its  effects,  if such pamphleteering  does  not
specifically  target  Jews, then for  the  purposes  of  the
Audit,  it will not be included as an anti-Semitic incident.
Finally, where an anti-Semitic mail campaign takes place, or
where  a  number of Jewish businesses or people are targeted
by  one  group or one individual for harassment or vandalism
in a defined area over a defined period of time, such events
are recorded as a single incident.  Incidents are catalogued
for the Audit in two broad categories:


Vandalism is defined as an act involving physical damage  to
property.  It  includes graffiti, swastikas,    desecrations
of  cemeteries and synagogues, other property damage,  arson
and  other  criminal  acts such as    thefts  and  break-ins
where an anti-Semitic motive can be determined.


Harassment    includes    anti-Semitic    hate    propaganda
distribution,  hate  mail  and  verbal  slurs  or  acts   of
discrimination against individuals. Death threats  and  bomb
threats  against individuals and property, as  well  as  any
kind  of physical assault, are also included in this broader


The 1991 census published by Statistics Canada reported that
356,315  of  the  27 million people in Canada  were  Jewish.
This  amounts to only 1.3% of the entire population  of  the
country.  In 1991, Toronto and    Montreal were reported  to
have 162,605 and 101,210 Jewish residents respectively,  and
no  other locale had more than 20,000 Jewish residents.   In
fact,  Jews comprise less than one half of one per  cent  of
the      population   of   Canada   outside   of   the   two
aforementioned cities.  The fact that Toronto  and  Montreal
have     the two largest Jewish communities in Canada (three
quarters  of  the  Jews in this country live  in  these  two
urban  areas , with 45.6% in Metropolitan Toronto, and 28.4%
of Canada's Jews living in Greater Montreal)    accounts for
the fact that the overwhelming majority of reported cases of
anti-Semitism occur in these centres.

Vancouver,  the  third  largest Canadian  city,  has  19,375
Jewish  residents (5.8% of the Jews in Canada), 1.3% of  the
total  Vancouver  population of 1,584,115.  The  Ottawa-Hull
area,  known  as  the National Capital Region,  is  home  to
nearly  12,000  Jews,  3.3  % of the  Jewish  population  in
Canada.   Winnipeg,  with 15,000 Jewish residents,  has  the
highest concentration of Jews (2.3%) of any city other  than
Montreal  (3.3%) and Toronto (4.2%).  In no  other  Canadian
urban  area  do Jews make up more than one per cent  of  the
total population.

Jews  have lived in Canada since the 18th century.  However,
the  first  significant  waves of  Jewish  immigration  from
Europe  started in the 1870's.  Eastern European Jews  often
moved to Winnipeg or to rural areas to work as farmers - one
of  the  few  occupations for which immigrants were  allowed
into Canada.

During  the Second World War the Canadian government refused
to allow Jewish immigrants fleeing the    Holocaust to enter
this  country,  with  one government official  stating  that
"none  is  too many" when asked how many Jews would  be  let
into  Canada.   However, thousands of Jewish  war  survivors
were  permitted  entry in the late 1940's and  1950's.   The
impact  of post-war emigres on the Canadian Jewish community
is  perhaps the most significant difference between patterns
in  American  and  Canadian Jewish  immigration.   Holocaust
survivors  who  came to Canada comprise a  more  significant
percentage  of the total Jewish community here than  in  the
United  States, largely because the Canadian government  had
restricted Jewish immigration earlier.

Until the 1970's Montreal was regarded as the principal  hub
of   Canadian  Jewry.   Although  other  cities  had  Jewish
communities,  Montreal was the oldest and largest,  and  was
considered  the  most  important Jewish  centre  in  Canada.
However,  the threat of Quebec separation in the  mid-1970's
was  a frightening prospect for many Jews, the vast majority
of  whom  were Anglophone.  Thousands of Montreal jobs  were
relocated   to  Ontario,  as  were  tens  of  thousands   of
Montreal's Jews.  Although the new census data will  not  be
available until late in 1996, a recent study conducted by J.
Torczyner,  D.  Brotman,  and J. Brodbar   (1995)  entitiled
"Rapid  Growth  and  Transformation: Demographic  Challenges
Facing  the  Jewish  Community of Greater Toronto"  suggests
further shifts in the Jewish population, particularly in the
wake  of  the  ongoing  Quebec  Referendum  debate  and  the
increase   in  nationalist  rhetoric.   Today,  Toronto   is
considered  the Jewish capital of Canada, with approximately
165,000 people in the community.

Canadian  Jewry  tends  to  be  more  traditional  than  the
American  Jewish population. In 1990, forty per  cent     of
affiliated  Jews identified themselves as Orthodox,  another
forty  per  cent  as Conservative, and twenty  per  cent  as
members  of  the Reform movement.  As well, in recent  years
Reconstructionist congregations have opened in  Toronto  and


Nature of Incidents by Year

There were 331 anti-Semitic incidents reported to the League
for  Human  Rights in 1995.  This represents an increase  of
12.1% over the 290 incidents in 1994, and the highest number
reported in 14 years of  documentation.

The  number of reported incidents of anti-Semitic  vandalism
was  80,  a  decrease of 13% from the 92 incidents  reported
last  year. It is likely that the demise of such  groups  as
the  Church of the Creator, and the disarray of the Heritage
Front,  has  contributed to this decrease in vandalism.  But
the   decrease   can   also  be  attributed   to   increased
prosecutions and community vigilance and education.

Despite   the   drop  in  vandalism,  in  1995  anti-Semitic
harassment,   which  includes  the  distribution   of   hate
propaganda,   was   at   its  highest  level.   Anti-Semitic
harassment  rose  to  251 reported incidents  in  1995  from
198  in  1994, an increase of 20.8%   Table 1 and  Figure  1
(below)  summarize  the  total  number  of  anti-    Semitic
incidents reported to the League for Human Rights  of  B'nai
Brith Canada over the last 14 years.

Figures  1(a),  (b)  and (c) present the  three  year  total
averages,   and   incidents  of  vandalism  and   harassment

Table 1

League  for  Human  Rights  -  1995  Audit  of  Anti-Semitic
Nature of Incidents by year

Year           Vandalism      Harassment          Total
1982           19             44             63
1983      25        23             48
1984      60        66             26
1985      52        43             95
1986      23        32             55
1987      18        37             55
1988      52        60             112
1989      63        113            176
1990      60        150            210
1991      50        201            251
1992      46        150            196
1993      105       151            256
1994      9         198            290
1995      80        251            331

[Comparative graphs omitted during transcription. knm]

Geographic Distribution of Incidents

There were 159 reported incidents of anti-Semitism this year
in  Toronto,  up   8.1%  from 146  incidents  last     year.
Toronto  is the largest city in Canada, and is also home  to
the  largest Jewish population.  Not    surprisingly,  anti-
Semitic incidents in Toronto represented 48% of all reported
incidents in 1995.

Montreal, which last year reported 55 incidents, had 52 anti-
Semitic  cases  in 1995 (15.7% of the total),  while  Ottawa
figures  remained consistent in 1995 with 37 reported  cases
(11.2%), 36 in 1994.

Last  year  the  Audit reported an appreciable  increase  in
reported  incidents  in smaller communities  in     Ontario,
other  than  Toronto and Ottawa. The 28  incidents  in  1994
represented  a 40% increase over the year before,  and  this
year  there were 29 anti-Semitic incidents in these regions,
8.8%  of  the total number of  reported incidents in Canada.
It  is clear that as police hate crimes units clamp down  on
hate  and  bias     crimes in the cities, hate  groups  have
increased    their   recruitment   activity   in    regional
communities, such as
Pickering,  Brampton,  Oakville,  St.  Catharines  and   the
Niagara region.

Winnipeg  reported 14 incidents, consistent with the  number
of reported cases of anti-Semitism over the last four years,
and  4.2% of all incidents.  However, a significant increase
in  reported incidents occurred in the western provinces  in
1995.  The total in Alberta and Saskatchewan was 13 in 1995,
up from 2 reported cases in 1994; and the number of reported
incidents in British Columbia jumped from 5 in 1994 to 23 in
1995, representing 6.9% of the total number in Canada. It is
important  to note that it is likely this dramatic  jump  is
due  to  two  factors: there is indeed  evidence  that  hate
mongering  activity has increased in the west,  as  will  be
elaborated below; but there has also been a strengthening of
the  B'nai Brith networks in the west, with a new  lodge  in
Victoria,  League leadership in Vancouver and  Calgary,  and
stronger connections with other anti-racist groups who share
information   and  intelligence,  thereby   increasing   the
likelihood of reporting when incidents occur.

Figure 2 (below) presents a summary of the 1995 data by
region. Table 2 provides a more detailed breakdown of the
data, indicating the specific nature of the reported

               Vandalism           Harassment

          Vandalism      Harassment     Threats   Assaults
1995 1994
MARITIMES           3                        3    1
   Montreal    19        16        16   1         52   55
   Other                 1                        1    2
   Toronto     30        104       23   2         159  146
   Ottawa 12        20        4    1         37   36
   Other       6         19        3    1         29   28
MANITOBA  6         8                        14   15
ALTA/SASK 5         7         1              13   2
B.C.      2         20        1              23   5
          80        198       48   5         331  290

From Coast to Coast - Highlights of Specific Incidents

January: "Toten Wir Juden" (Let's kill Jews) is written on a
wall of Nepean High School, in suburban              Ottawa.
Police  were notified. No perpetrators have been found.  The
notorious forgery, "The Protocols of the Elders of Zion"  is
distributed in Armstrong and Vernon B.C.

February: Detergent is put into the locks of the front doors
of  Calgary's  Congregation House of Jacob,  Mikveh  Israel.
Police  were  notified.  "Winston's Journal",  published  in
Ponoka   Alberta,  asserts  Jews  are  behind  the  abortion
industry,   refers to the Holocaust as the  'Holohoax',  and
declares  itself  to be a "beacon of light in  the  darkened
land of ZOG".

April: Glen Kealy, on radio in Vancouver, says Aryan Nations
and Zundel are set-ups by the         Rothschild bankers  to
divert attention from bankers' real activities.

May:  Holocaust denial material is sent to Kelowna Secondary
School,  originating  from  the  Institute               for
Historical Review, but mailed locally. Charles Scott,  Aryan
of  the Year, has hate-line announcing Jews are Satanic  and
the  children  of Lucifer, that 'Jew-parasites'  lied  about
history and promote genocide through abortion.

June:  Anti-Semitic propaganda is received in at least three
locations in Nova Scotia. Materials sent              to the
Anglo-Jewish media.

August:  Graffiti  found on a wall in  Toronto  which  reads
"Don't  believe in their promised land, kill the rich  now."
The incident was reported to the police and the graffiti was

October:   The  Yonge/Eglinton neighborhood  of  Toronto  is
plastered with "European Heritage Week"              posters
produced by the neo-Nazi Nationalist Party of Canada (NPOC).
Copies  of  the offending             posters were  sent  to
B'nai Brith as well as to the Canadian Jewish Congress.  The
NPOC  is  headed  by well known racist and  anti-Semite  Don

September:  "Juden Raus" (Jews Out) is found  written  on  a
sign  outside Vancouver's Har El Synagogue and the  incident
reported to police.

November:  Montreal's main Jewish Community Centre  receives
an  anonymous letter stating "We would              have won
the  referendum, if only Hitler would have  done  his  job,"
someone  imitating  messages               posted   on   the
internet  after  the  Referendum. A  Jewish  day  school  in
Toronto  receives  a  message  on  its  telephone  answering
machine stating "This is Hitler, I'm going to burn down your
f---ing school." The perpetrator has not been found.  A  law
office  in St. Catharines, Ontario, is vandalized  with  the
words  "Jew  bastard". The incident was  reported  to  local
police.  A  professor  at Concordia University  in  Montreal
receives   an  anonymous  note  at  his  office   containing
swastikas  and  the words, "Dirty Jew". Perpetrator(s)  have
not been found.

December:  A "Jews for Jesus" advertisement is placed in the
Toronto    Star.    The   ad   specifically    called    for
Jews  to  accept  Jesus  as their messiah.  Complaints  were
lodged with the paper's ombudsman's              office, and
the  publisher  extended an apology to the Jewish  community
for violating the Star's              own guidelines.


The State of the Neo-Nazi Right

The  organized hate movement in Canada continued to struggle
under  the  weight of legal challenges and public  pressure.
The  Heritage  Front  (HF),  from  1990  to  1993  the  most
important  neo-Nazi group in       Canada, is still  reeling
from  declining  membership, lack of money,  and  the  legal
troubles  of  its  leaders.         In  1995,   the  group's
founder,  Wolfgang  Droege, served  jail  time  for  a  1993
assault.   He  was released       in April, but  remains  on
probation  and  subject  to  a  lifetime  weapons  ban.   In
December,  HF  leader Max       French and his ex-wife  June
were  in  court to appeal their convictions for violating  a
court  order related       to their operation of a telephone
hate-line.  Gerry Lincoln, the publisher of the HF newspaper
Up        Front,  also faces charges for allegedly harassing
anti-racists.   Up Front did not publish  an  issue  in  the
last  several months of 1995 - a clear indication  that  the
Heritage Front has fallen on hard times.

Attempts by the Nationalist Party of Canada (NPOC), a  group
with  close ties to the Heritage Front, to        promote  a
European  Heritage  Week  were  unsuccessful  for  a  second
consecutive year.  Last year's       efforts, which included
an   ambitious  letter-writing  campaign  to  mayors  across
Canada,  were foiled when       Toronto's CITY TV broke  the
story  in  mid-1994.   This year, the  NPOC  restricted  its
activities  to placing       posters throughout Toronto  and
in smaller towns in Southern Ontario. In Winnipeg, a similar
effort  by        the  National  Action  Party  was  equally

The meteoric rise of George Burdi appears to be crashing  in
Canada.   Burdi  first  came  to  prominence        as   the
Canadian  leader  of  the Church of the  Creator  (COTC),  a
violent  neo-Nazi group with       connections also  to  the
Identity Church movement based in the United States.   As  a
young  and eloquent       speaker, he was a major asset  for
the  recruiting efforts for the Heritage Front, of which  he
was also a       member.  In addition, he was the leader  of
RaHoWa  (an  acronym for "Racial Holy War"), a Toronto-based
racist  rock  group.  The band played  at  several  neo-Nazi
rallies, and released a cassette three years ago.  Burdi was
a major player in the Canadian racist right until the summer
of  1993, when he was charged with assaulting an anti-racist
demonstrator in Ottawa. Following his arrest, Burdi  stopped
making  public appearances, and concentrated his efforts  on
running  his racist music label, Resistance Records  out  of
Detroit,   and   publishing  his   magazine,   also   called
Resistance.  In June 1995, Burdi was sentenced to a year  in
jail   for  the  assault,  and  was  paroled  in  September.
However,  his  magazine has not appeared since his  release,
and  it  is  reported that Burdi is no longer on good  terms
with  many  of  his former allies.  While  Burdi  will  most
likely  try to make a comeback in 1996, his recent  lack  of
success  may be an indicator that George Burdi, the one-time
wunderkind of the Canadian racist right, may no longer be  a
major player.

Despite the failures of these individuals, there are certain
people  involved with the racist right who  are        still
active in this country.  In December, Holocaust denier Ernst
Zundel  found himself in court once       again as a  result
of  a  criminal conspiracy charge.  The preliminary  hearing
will be held early in 1996 to       determine whether or not
he  goes  to  trial.   However,  Zundel  is  still  actively
distributing  his  hate, using       both printed  materials
and a sophisticated link to the Worldwide Web (WWW).

In  December 1995, Paul Fromm held a public meeting  of  his
Citizens  for  Foreign  Aid Reform  (C-FAR)        group  in
Toronto.   Fromm,  who  has been a leader  in  the  Canadian
racist  scene for more than 25 years,       is a teacher  in
the  Peel Board of Education, just  west of Toronto.  He has
not  been  allowed to teach       high school-aged  students
for  several  years as a result of a Ministry  of  Education
inquiry   into   his   well-publicized  racist   activities,
including speaking at a Heritage Front rally on the occasion
of Hitler's       birthday.  Fromm's continuing role with C-
FAR,  including  speaking engagements  in  the  West,  bears
continued vigilance by anti-racist community groups.

In  British Columbia, the enigmatic neo-Nazi, Charles Scott,
is  still actively recruiting followers for racist groups in
Western  Canada.  Scott was responsible for the  recruitment
of  CSIS  agent,  Luke Desilets, into        the  U.S.-based
Aryan  Nations, and was named "Aryan of the  Year"  by  that
organization.  However, Scott       has reportedly left that
organization to start his own group.  He announced  that  he
was  moving  to        Ontario to get away from  anti-racist
protesters  who were harassing him; but the move never  took
place.         According  to  sources  in  B.C.,  Scott   is
traveling  to  small towns in the west to  build  a  support
network        for  his new organization. This  is  what  is
likely  responsible  for the increased  reporting  of  anti-
Semitic       hate propaganda in the area.

Since the decline of the Heritage Front started in 1993,  it
had been theorized that the Northern       Hammerskins (NHS)
would  move  to Toronto to replace them as a the predominant
hate   group.         However,  there  has  been   no   real
indication   that   NHS   has  been   active   in   Toronto.
Nevertheless,  they        are quite involved  in  the  hate
scene in British Columbia, and several NHS members have gone
to court       in that province.

The Current Climate - Highlights of Issues and Trends

The  decline  of  the neo-Nazi movement in  Canada  has  not
resulted in a drop in levels of reported anti-Semitism  over
the  last  two years.  Instead, the sources of anti-Semitism
have  diversified and become       more diffuse.   1995  was
dominated  by  several  issues  which  served  to   increase
tensions  and  anxiety within       the  Jewish  communities
across   the  country,  namely:  the  situation  in  Quebec,
increased incidents of anti-      Semitism in the media, the
targeting  of Jews by proselytizing missionary  groups,  and
the proliferation       of hate propaganda via the Internet.

The Climate in Quebec

In  1995,  the number of reported anti-Semitic incidents  of
vandalism   and  harassment  in  Quebec   were         down.
However, as the year drew to a close, the insecurity of  the
Jewish  community was growing in the       wake of a  number
of   incidents  related  to  Quebec's  bitter  and  divisive
sovereignty referendum debate.

Early  in  the  year,  the  communications  advisor  to  the
Premier,     long-time    separatist     militant     Pierre
Bourgault,   warned  of  a  "dangerous  situation"   if   an
overwhelming vote by minority communities thwarted       the
nationalist  aspirations of francophone Quebecers.   Despite
being  censured  and dismissed for his        remarks,  this
warning  was a worrisome undercurrent, coupled with  concern
about  the possibility of a       vote favourable to  Quebec
independence.  So  there  was much  anxiety  in  the  Jewish
community   as   the        October  30th  referendum   date

The  narrow  margin  of the NO victory  set  the  stage  for
Bourgault's  prediction  to come  true.   Even        though
there  was  no violence or overt anti-Semitism to speak  of,
this  remained  a very tense time for       Quebec's  Jewish
community,  compounded by a series of events  that  followed
the   very  close  NO  vote.        On  the  night  of   the
referendum,  instead  of initiating  a  period  of  healing,
Quebec  Premier, Jacques       Parizeau, spoke of  "us"  and
"them" and pointedly blamed "money and the ethnic vote"  for
the  narrow       loss by the sovereignists.  In the  highly
emotionally charged atmosphere, some have suggested that the
Premier's  actions bordered on incitement to hatred.   Later
that  same  evening, Quebec's Deputy Premier,        Bernard
Landry,  verbally  abused a hotel clerk who  was  of  ethnic
background, ranting that immigrants       were allowed  into
this  country only to turn around and vote NO.  A  few  days
later,   Pierre  Bourgault        reappeared,  calling   the
Jewish, Greek and Italian communities racist for their block
vote against Quebec       sovereignty.

Racists   outside  of  Quebec  immediately  picked   up   on
Parizeau's  theme too.  The next evening there  was        a
message from Western Canada on the internet discussion group
alt.revisionism  which promoted hatred        against  Jews.
The title was "Quebec Leader Blames Jews".  There was also a
message   on   the  Heritage        Front  hotline   blaming
immigrants for the unity problems in Quebec.

The  uncertainty about Quebec's future, and assumption  that
another  referendum is on the horizon,        together  with
these   intolerant  statements  and  actions  by   prominent
political leaders in Quebec, has       created a gloomy  and
almost frightening outlook for the Jewish community.   Terms
like  racism,        intolerance and  xenophobia  are  being
bandied  about  recklessly.   There  is  increased  talk  of
another       exodus from Quebec, similar to the 1970's.

The  recent  news  that a convicted Front de  Liberation  du
Quebec  (FLQ) terrorist from the 1960's has       founded  a
new  movement  to  aggressively push for Quebec  sovereignty
only serves to intensify the dread.

However, there have been a few good signs as well, which  do
provide some measure of hope to many       Jewish Quebecers.
Several franco phone commentators have denounced most of the
incidents described       above.  And towards the end of the
year,   when   a  Quebec  Superior  Court  judge   made   an
inappropriate       Holocaust analogy that was perceived  as
minimizing the suffering of Jews in concentration camps,  he
was  quickly and roundly censured and a disciplinary hearing
was convened.

In order to quell the fears of anti-Semitism and intolerance
and  to  'lower the temperature', it is hoped        that  a
much  more accepting and open vision of Quebec society  will
be  projected  by the new Premier       through  substantive
debate  within  the Quebec nationalist movement  to  address
these very sensitive issues       head on.

Anti-Semitism in the Media

In  Ontario,  a major controversy of the year  surrounded  a
commentary made by radio host Brian       Henderson of CHUM.
In  his  broadcast, Henderson remarked that  Jewish  mothers
were pushing their       children into the legal profession,
and  that lawyers were bilking the legal aid system.   While
his piece       was meant as a comedic look at the legal aid
program,  his  humour  missed the  mark  and  offended  Jews
across  Metro  Toronto.  The following week, Dick  Smyth,  a
host  on  CFTR  radio,  openly  supported        Henderson's
broadcast - this was somewhat ironic, as CHUM, and Henderson
himself,   had  disavowed        his  original   commentary.
Nevertheless,  the two broadcasts brought  issues  of  anti-
Semitism to the       forefront in the Toronto media.

The  League also received several complaints from university
students because of distasteful features in       the campus
press  that  fueled  the  flames of  anti-Semitism.   It  is
regrettable  that overzealous editors,        usually  in  a
poor  attempt  at  humour, insist on invoking  arguments  of
freedom  of  the press, and the       license of  satirists,
when  these  are usually arguments in defense of poor  taste
and offensive material.

Documentaries Highlight Hate

On 28 February 1995, CTV aired the show "Hearts of Hate",  a
documentary  on  the inner workings  of        the  Heritage
Front.   While  the  film  was made with  the  intention  of
exposing the hate and violence of       the group's leaders,
some  accused the film of serving as a recruitment tool  for
the  racist right.  The film       maker's decision  not  to
provide  a countervailing voice to the speeches of  Wolfgang
Droege  and  George        Burdi, particularly  scapegoating
minorities  and  immigrants on the steps of  the  parliament
buildings,        made the neo-Nazis seem more important and
credible  than  they  actually are.  In the  week  following
the  airing  of   "Hearts of Hate", there were  seven  major
incidents  of  vandalism directed  at  synagogues        and
Jewish  schools  across Canada.  Although opinion  is  still
sharply divided on the merits of the       programme,  there
appears  to  be a direct correlation between the showing  of
"Hearts  of Hate" and a       spate of anti-Semitic violence
in Canada.  As the programme is rebroadcast around the world
and       youngsters are exposed to it in their living rooms
without    guidance,    there   is   considerable    anxiety
regarding possible reactions to the show.  A Teacher's Guide
has since been created, as the film has       proved to be a
useful  teaching tool when used by skilled educators in  the
right  context.   Indeed, the        League  uses  the  film
frequently in workshops and presentations to raise awareness
of  the  dangers  of        hate group recruitment  and  the
nature  and  extent of their activities, but  balanced  with
practical        strategies to counter their hate propaganda
with   the   facts   about  minority  groups,   immigration,
employment equity, and the Holocaust.

Other  recent  documentaries include "Profession  Neo-Nazi",
"Hate  and  Hate Crimes", "Crimes of Hate",        and  "The
Faces  of  Hate".  All of these films should  be  used  with
appropriate  preparation by educators        in  order  that
they  do  not  have  exactly the opposite  effect  that  was
intended by the producers.

Missionaries Target Canada's Jews

In  1995, missionary groups continued their proselytizing of
Jews  in Canada.  While these recruitment       efforts  are
NOT  counted for the statistical sections of the Audit, heir
increased  activities  are of  great        concern  to  the
League.   While we recognize the rights of all Canadians  to
practice   their   faiths,         missionary   groups   are
infringing  on  the rights of others to feel comfortable  in
their observances of their       religious traditions.

Jews  for  Jesus,  a  group primarily  funded  by  Christian
missionary groups, has been active in recruiting        Jews
to  join  their ranks.  Other groups, including the  Toronto
Jewish Mission, have also been targeting       Jews to  join
their  congregations.   Russian  immigrants  and  university
students  are  often selected by these        organizations,
who  ask their members to participate in traditional  Jewish
rituals  laden with Christian       symbolism.   While  most
Jews  would  never consider joining a Christian sect,  these
Hebrew  Christian       groups continue to try  to  convince
Jews that the two faiths are not incompatible, and that Jews
can  be        Christians  and still remain  true  to  their
original  faith.  The Jewish community must remain  vigilant
in        counteracting the efforts of missionaries who prey
on Jews.

North  of Toronto, in Newmarket and Richmond Hill,  a  group
called  the  Vineyard Ministries tried to        recruit  in
areas  with  heavy  Jewish  populations.   They  put  on   a
Christian missionary play, entitled       "Toymaker and Son"
in  a  public park, and tried to get permits to perform  the
show  in several other       venues, all of which were  near
synagogues and other Jewish institutions in so-called Jewish
neighbourhoods.  The show was advertised with  flyers  which
made    no   mention   of   the   nature   of   the    play;
furthermore, it was targeted at children.  The Vineyard also
was allowed to present its play in a public       elementary
school with a large Jewish population.  The principal of the
school   did   not  screen  the  script         before   the
performance,  and several parents complained to  the  school
board  and  to the League.  There       was a mail  campaign
targeting the Jewish Community in Ottawa as well.

In  Ottawa,  and also in Toronto a program during  Holocaust
Education Week was being sponsored       behind the scene by
the  Grail Foundation, an organization dedicated to bringing
the  world "the Saving       Revelation from the same origin
as  the true Message of Christ". The purpose of the program,
a  lecture        by  Micah Rubenstein,  was  not  Holocaust
education,  but  to introduce "In the Light  of  Truth:  the
Grail        Message" written by German citizen Oskar  Ernst
Bernhardt   under  the  name  of  Abd-ru-shin.   While   the
programs   did  not  take  place,  the  appearances   during
Holocaust  Education Week appeared to be a        deliberate
attempt  to  have  the program endorsed by the  unsuspecting
Holocaust Education Committee       of the Jewish Federation
and  then use the endorsement in later promotional material.
The League       played a role in alerting co-ordinators  to
the  role  of  the  Grail Foundation behind these  scheduled

It  is  critical for Jews in Canada to be vigilant,  and  to
counteract   the   missionary  efforts   directed   at   the
Jewish community.  While it is imperative that all Canadians
be  allowed  to practice their religions, it        is  also
important for members of minority faiths to feel that  their
rights   are   not  being  infringed  by        governments,
organizations, or individuals.

The Internet: The Battle (Flame War?) Heats Up

Last year, the Audit of Anti-Semitic Incidents reported that
neo-Nazis  were  gaining access to the  Internet,  and  were
relying  on computers to transmit their hatred.  This  trend
has  continued  at accelerated rates        as  hate  groups
employ  Usenet and e-mail to spread their hatred.  As  well,
the  Worldwide Web (WWW)       is being used to  allow  Nazi
groups  and  supporters  around  the  world  to  make  their
materials available       in Canada.

While  some strides are being attempted in Europe, the legal
challenges posed by the Net regarding       Canadian law are
well-documented  (see  "Hate on the Internet"  below).   The
Internet  allows material       prohibited  in  Canada  from
entering   this  country  without  interruption   or   legal
challenge.  But even as       community groups, legislators,
lawyers,  and government agencies seek to find new  ways  to
fight  hate  in       cyberspace, it is imperative  also  to
seek  out and vigorously implement non-legislative solutions
to the       problem.

Neo-Nazis such as Ernst Zundel , who are based in Canada are
using  websites,  and  there are dozens  of  such  locations
around  the  world  which do not fall under  the  domain  of
Canadian  law.   In addition,       neo-Nazis and  Holocaust
deniers  such as Canadians  Marc Lemire, George  Burdi,  and
"Stormtrooper         88"   are  posting   their   hate   on
newsgroups.  While many of these are devoted to racist views
and topics,       they are also actively posting on non-hate
groups  which  cover  such topics as music,  art,  and  even

Ken McVay, a resident of Vancouver Island, has been actively
fighting hatemongers on the Net for       several years.  He
is the Director of the Nizkor Project, which is compiling an
on-line  library designed       to combat Holocaust  deniers
through  extensive  research and wide dissemination  of  the
facts,  including        through links  to  several  of  the
racist sites themselves.  McVay and others are routinely on-
line to refute       the racist, anti-Semitic diatribes  and
"evidence" that the Holocaust never occurred.  As well,  the
Nizkor       website provides a resource for researchers who
want  to  investigate  the  claims  of  hatemongers  on  the

McVay is among those who promote free speech on the Net,  in
the  belief  that it is easier and more        effective  to
deal with Nazis when they are in the open and you can expose
and refute their lies.  But he       also works closely with
the League and other organizations on pro-active educational
initiatives,  as       described below.  Even as  government
and  community  agencies  try  to  develop  a  solution   to
hatemongering  on  the  Net  which  is  both   legally   and
technologically sound, the neo-Nazis are continuing       to
use  the  Internet to further their goals.  It is imperative
to work quickly to develop a comprehensive       solution to


In  addition  to  responding  on  a  case-by-case  basis  to
reported   incidents,  it  is  by   using   the   tools   of
education and research, legal/legislative interventions, and
community  action  and  coalition  building  that        the
League  strives  to  fulfil its goals of combatting  racism,
bigotry  and anti-Semitism, and to promote       and achieve
human rights for all Canadians.

Education and Research

Education is one of the major tools with which to counteract
hate  in  high  schools,  colleges  and        universities.
Through  its  Education  and  Training  Centre,  the  League
provides   educational  materials  for        students   and
teachers,   conducts   countless  professional   development
workshops  in  school  boards  and  on        campuses,  and
provides  training  programs  in  the  public  and   private
sectors.   In  1995, the Centre       conducted  anti-racist
education  workshops, courses on human rights and  workplace
harassment,        programs on the criminal justice  system,
and public lectures and symposia on Holocaust education.

In 1995 the Human Rights Youth League continued it promotion
of  student-driven  activism in the        struggle  against
racism,  anti-Semitism, and hate group activities. Conceived
by  the League in 1993 as       a forum for young people  to
develop  legal,  productive  and non-violent  strategies  to
counter        discrimination, this year  the  Youth  League
held a very successful Anti-Racist Benefit Rock Concert, and
participated actively in school forums.

Towards  the end of 1995, the League began a research  study
for  the Municipality of Metropolitan       Toronto  on  the
"Nature  and  Extent of Racism and Hate  Activity  in  Metro
Toronto".   Building on the       League's  early  study  of
"Victim  Impact of Racially Motivated Crime", conducted  for
the  Commission        on  Systemic Racism  in  the  Justice
System  whose final report was released this year,  the  new
study  is        correlating demographic data with incidents
of hate and bias crime, utilizing a  1-800 number for direct
reporting of incidents, and conducting extensive focus group
discussions  and  interviews to determine a  more  effective
model  of  coordinated  action, data  collection  ,  service
delivery and victim protection in this area.

The  League's  databases on hate crimes, hate mongers,  hate
groups and reported incidents were refined       in 1995.  A
Task  Force has also been convened to monitor hate mongering
on  the Internet and to       propose educational curriculum
and  policy  development and implementation to  regulate  in
some  way        the transmission of hateful messages.   The
League is working closely with the Nizkor Project, the Urban
Alliance   on  Race  Relations,  the  Anti-Racism   Response
Network,   the  Canadian  Anti-racism  Education         and
Research  Society, among others, as information partners  on
the  electronic  highway  to  solve  this        challenging
problem.   The  League and Nizkor have prepared  a  document
entitled "Hate and the       Internet: Selected Readings" to
assist in this work. The creation of a B'nai Brith web  page
(    facilitates    the
cause.    By  conducting and disseminating in-depth  primary
research, the League provides law enforcement officials, the
media,  and  the  public at large with  up-to-date  accurate
information  on  hate  groups and strategies  to  counteract
their influence.

Legal/Legislative Initiatives

In  1995  the  League  continued strong efforts  to  achieve
passage of Bill C-41, which included amendments       to the
Criminal Code directing judges to take hate motivation  into
account during sentencing.  The       League was one of  the
few  organizations selected to present its position verbally
to  the House of       Commons Standing Committee on Justice
and  Legal  Affairs,  and during the debate  in  the  House,
League   research  and  statistics  were  cited  by  several
speakers to strengthen their positions on the       question
of Bill C-41.

The  League was also invited to make a presentation  to  the
Senate  Committee on Legal and       Constitutional  Affairs
in  the final stages of the deliberations on Bill C-41.   It
was  immediately following       this presentation that  the
Senator who chaired the Committee was angrily approached  by
a number of       hostile observers in the meeting room. One
of  them  actually  threatened the  League  representatives,
shouting  "it's  because you Jews are always pushing  things
that  what happened in Europe happened.  If        you  keep
this up, it could happen here."  Feedback from the Committee
indicated  that  these  comments        helped  to  convince
members even more of the need for the inclusive revisions to
the  law. Bill C-41       passed by both the House  and  the
Senate in 1995.

Further  to the astonishing revelations of white supremacist
activity in the Armed Forces following the       murder of a
Somalian  teenager  by  Canadian  peacekeeping  forces,   as
highlighted  in  last  year's  Audit,  in         1995   the
Commission of Inquiry into the Deployment of Canadian Forces
in  Somalia  was begun.  B'nai       Brith was granted  full
standing  in the Inquiry, as an organization with  expertise
in  hate  and  bias crime,       hate group activity,  human
rights  violations, and the psychological factors of racists
and  victims. At the       preliminary hearings in 1995, the
League  presented  an  overview  of  issues  of  harassment;
conflict  of        interest in the chain  of  command  when
reporting  through  the  ranks;  assessment,  selection  and
training;       presence of racists in the Armed Forces; and
the   distinction  between  international  humanitarian  and
human  rights  law.  The  League  has  since  cross-examined
several  witnesses  at the hearings  and  assisted        in
bringing  out  important points on the lack of investigation
and    relative   indifference   to   racism    and    white
supremacists in the First Airborne in conjunction  with  the
deployment to Somalia.

The  League had intervenor status in the Malcolm Ross  case,
which  was heard in the Supreme Court in the fall  of  1995.
The  New Brunswick Human Rights Commission appealed the  New
Brunswick  Court  of Appeal's overturning  of  the  tribunal
decision  to remove Ross from the classroom on the basis  of
the       poisoned environment created by his publishing and
disseminating Holocaust denial material and other       anti-
Semitic  and  hateful  propaganda.   We  eagerly  await  the
Supreme Court decision on Ross.

The  League was pleased to be granted leave to intervene  in
the  pending Keegstra appeal, lest the     Supreme Court re-
open  the  issue of the constitutionality of the hate  laws,
which  were  upheld as       constitutional  in  1990.   The
Keegstra appeal will be heard early in 1996.

Community Partnerships

The  League is committed to working with other organizations
and agencies to promote multicultural understanding and anti-
racism   awareness  and  action.  Through  direct  community
action, coalition building and information sharing, the work
of   the   League   is  expedited.  It  is  essential   that
partnerships  are formed and resources pooled,  particularly
during  this  time of declining resources.  Such initiatives
of  the  League as the Interfaith and Intercultural Dialogue
programs,  such  as  the Muslim/Jewish Dialogue,  the  Black
/Jewish  Dialogue, and the Women's Interfaith Dialogue,  are
all  ways to promote understanding, mediate differences, and
to   plan   and   implement   constructive   inter-community
initiatives.  The  League also continues  to  be  active  on
provincial  and  municipal race relations committees  across
the country, and to strengthen the partnerships with various
police  Hate  Crimes  Units,  in  the  spirit  of  community
policing, and to work to ensure safe cities.

The  League hosted the 20th annual Media Human Rights Awards
in Winnipeg in 1995 to commemorate the International Day for
the Elimination of Racial Discrimination.  This annual event
is  attended  by  members  of  the  human  rights  and  race
relations  community,  as well as journalists.   The  awards
recognize  print  and broadcast journalists for  outstanding
coverage of human rights issues.  Media monitoring continues
in   order  to  protest  against  bias  and  to  acknowledge
balanced, responsible reporting.


Despite the setbacks suffered by the racist right, with many
of  their leaders in and out of court and       serving jail
sentences, hatemongers continued to be active in  Canada  in
1995.   Holocaust  denier, Ernst       Zundel  continued  to
distribute anti-Semitic hate propaganda at home and  abroad,
primarily over the       Internet.  Charles Scott, "Aryan of
the  Year" openly toured British Columbia trying to  attract
more        people to his racist cause.  And open  gang  and
hate  group  activity was evident in smaller  Ontario  towns
such as Pickering, Oakville, Brampton, and St. Catherines.

Christian  missionary groups seemed to be picking  up  their
proselytizing and targeting of Jewish       communities,  in
particular,  usually not revealing their  true  identity  or
intention   until  an  unsuspecting        organization   or
institution has accepted their booking or their material for

Still, the majority of incidents reported to the League  for
Human  Rights were instigated by individuals        with  no
apparent  affiliation to organized groups.  In 1995,  as  in
recent  years,  Canadian Jews routinely       received  hate
letters  espousing  everything  from  Holocaust  denial,  to
conspiracy  theories, to death       threats, to  advocating
the destruction of the State of Israel.

Two major concerns expressed by the League in 1994 have come
to fruition.  The first is the use of the       Internet and
other electronic communication networks for the distribution
of   hate  propaganda.   At        present  in  Canada,   no
mechanism  exists  to  implement  existing  legislation   to
regulated  racist  and anti-      Semitic transmissions  via
computer.   The League has launched a Task Force to  address
this  and  other        creative ways to counter  the  ever-
widening  effects of hate on the internet, including  active
educational       programming and materials.

Secondly, in 1994 we predicted that it was only a matter  of
time  before  new organizations emerged,       tapping  into
the  pool of racist race, fuelled by the increasing backlash
against   immigration,        multiculturalism  and   equity
hiring  programmes.   Ignorance of policies,  and  anger  at
rising         unemployment  leave  a  fertile  ground   for
scapegoating  of  minorities.   Backlash  against  inclusive
human       rights policies leave victims feeling even  more
vulnerable.    And  vocal opposition  to  strengthening  and
broadening   human  rights  legislation,  albeit  legitimate
opposition in the parliamentary context, gave        license
for  right-wing extremists to come out of the  woodwork  and
perpetrate crimes of gay bashing and       vandalism.  Mean-
spirited  comments  from political leaders  in  Ontario  and
Quebec about immigration,       'ethnics', 'special interest
groups'  ,  and  stereotyping  'welfare  cheats',  create  a
climate  of  tension,       scapegoating, and fear-mongering
that is a breeding ground for more extremist activity.  Even
though       some of the better-known racist groups seem  to
be  weakened  at  this time, it would  be  naive  to  assume
that  large-scale  organized  hate  will  not  resurface  in

As  we  move into 1996, we are encouraged by the legislation
passed  last year for sentencing enhancement       for  hate
motivated  crime,  and  by  the proliferation  of  hate/bias
crimes units in police forces across the       country.  But
law  making  and law enforcement is only part of the  battle
against hatred in Canada.  We       have said before that it
is  essential to promote multicultural anti-racist education
to   heighten  awareness        of  racism  and  to  provide
practical   non-violent  skills  to  counteract   it.    But
important programs of this       nature have been eroded and
even  eliminated  completely  through  government  cutbacks,
weakening the       strides that have been made in this area
in  the  last  few  years. At the same  time,  incidents  of
violence       and harassment have increased in schools  and

More  than  ever,  now  is the time to strengthen  community
coalitions   and   launch  informed  and         coordinated
community  action  to  ensure that all Canadians  strive  to
refute  the hatemongers and to build       upon and  promote
the  diversity that has made Canada the great country it  is
today.  We cannot afford       to allow all of the  advances
we  have  made  in human rights and equality be  eroded  any


Hotline Information

Incident Reporting Form


Table 1            - Nature of Incidents by Year
Figure 1           - Nature of Incidents by Year
Figure 1 (a) - Number of Incidents - Three Year Average
Figure I (b)       - Incidents of Vandalism by Year
Figure 1 (c) - Incidents of Harassment by Year
Figure 2           - Geographic Distribution of Incidents
Table  2           - Geographic Distribution of Incidents

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This site is intended for educational purposes to teach about the Holocaust and to combat hatred. Any statements or excerpts found on this site are for educational purposes only.

As part of these educational purposes, Nizkor may include on this website materials, such as excerpts from the writings of racists and antisemites. Far from approving these writings, Nizkor condemns them and provides them so that its readers can learn the nature and extent of hate and antisemitic discourse. Nizkor urges the readers of these pages to condemn racist and hate speech in all of its forms and manifestations.