The Nizkor Project: Remembering the Holocaust (Shoah)
Nuremberg, war crimes, crimes against humanity

The Trial of German Major War Criminals

Sitting at Nuremberg, Germany
December 3 to December 14, 1945

Twentieth Day: Friday, 14th December, 1945
(Part 6 of 9)


[Page 422]

I first offer in evidence Document EC 344-16, which is Exhibit USA 297. This document is a report of an interview with defendant Frank on 3rd October, 1939, and was found among the files of the O.K.W., which were assembled in bulk at the Fechenheim Document Centre. This particular document was included in a large report prepared in the O.K.W. by one Captain Varain at the direction of General Thomas, then Chief of the Military

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Economic Staff of the O.K.W. I quote from the first 19 lines of Page 3 of the English text. The German text appears on Page 29, Lines 25-36 and Page 30, Lines 1-6. The report states, and I quote:-
"In the first interview which the chief of the Central Division and the liaison officer between the Armament Department Upper East and the Chief Administrative Officer (subsequently called Governor General) had with Minister Frank on 3rd October, 1939, in Posen, Frank explained the directive and the economic and political responsibilities which had been conferred upon him by the Fuehrer and according to which he intended to administer Poland. According to these directives, Poland can only be administered by utilising the country through means of ruthless exploitation; deportation of all supplies, raw materials, machines, factory installations, etc., which are important for the German war economy; availability of all workers for work within Germany; reduction of the entire Polish economy to the absolute minimum necessary for the bare existence of the population; and the closing of all educational institutions, especially technical schools and colleges in order to prevent the growth of the new Polish intelligentsia. Poland, defendant Frank stated (and this is an exact quotation), 'Poland shall be treated as a colony; the Poles shall be the slaves of the Greater German World Empire.'"
I should like also to quote from the last six lines of the English text. In the German text it is Lines 18 to 23 of Page 30.

Defendant Frank further stated:

"By destroying Polish industry, its subsequent reconstruction after the war would become more difficult, if not impossible, so that Poland would be reduced to its proper position as an agrarian country which would have to depend upon Germany for the importation of industrial products."
As further proof of the defendants' plan to plunder and despoil the Government General of Poland, I next offer in evidence Document EC-410, which is Exhibit USA 298. In addition to the proof of the defendants' plans to plunder and despoil the Government General, this document demonstrates the difference in treatment which the conspirators planned for the incorporated area of Poland and the Government General. It is a copy of a directive issued and signed by defendant Goering on 19th October, 1939, and was likewise found among the captured O.K.W. files. I quote from Lines 1 to 19 on Page 1 of the English text, Page 1514, Paragraph 4, Line 11. In the German text it is all of Page 1 and the first line of Page 2. Defendant Goering's directive states, and I quote:-
"In the meeting of 13th October, I have given detailed instructions for the economical administration of the occupied territories. I will repeat them here in short:

1. The task for the economic treatment of the various administrative regions is different, depending on whether a country which will be incorporated politically into the German Reich is involved, or whether we are to deal with the Government General, which, in all probability, will not be made a part of Germany.

In the first-mentioned territories the reconstruction and expansion of the economy, the safeguarding of all their production facilities and supplies must be aimed at, as well as a complete incorporation into the Greater German economic system at the earliest possible time. On the

[Page 424]

other hand, there must be removed from the territories of the Government General all raw materials, scrap materials, machines, etc., which are of use for the German war economy. Enterprises which are not absolutely necessary for the mere maintenance of the naked existence of the population must be transferred to Germany, unless such transfer would require an unreasonably long period of time, and would make it more practical to exploit these enterprises by giving them German orders to be executed at their present location."
Once the Government General had been stripped of its industrial potential, the defendants planned to leave the country desolate. Not even the war damage was to be repaired. This is the clear import of the documents previously introduced, and is likewise made clear by Document EC-411, which is Exhibit USA 299. I offer this document in evidence. This is a copy of an order dated 20th November, 1939, by defendant Hess, in his capacity as Deputy Fuehrer. This document was also found in the captured O.K.W. files. I quote the English and German texts in their entirety. Defendant Hess stated, and I quote:-
"I hear from Party members who came from the Government General that various agencies, as, for instance, the Military Economic Staff, the Reich Ministry for Labour, etc., intend to reconstruct certain industrial enterprises in Warsaw. However, in accordance with a decision by Minister Dr. Frank, as approved by the Fuehrer, Warsaw shall not be rebuilt nor is it the intention of the Fuehrer to rebuild or reconstruct any industry in the Government General."
Turning from the defendants' programme of economic spoliation in the Government General to their programme of deportation and resettlement, I next offer in evidence Document 661-PS, which is Exhibit USA 300. This is a secret report prepared by the Academy of German Law in January, 1940, upon plans for the mass migration of Poles and Jews from incorporated areas of Poland to the Government General, and for the forcible deportation of able-bodied Poles to Germany. This document was obtained from the Ministerial Collecting Centre at Kassel, Germany. The date does not appear in the English translation, but it is clearly set forth on the cover page of the original document as January, 1940. Before quoting from this document, I ask first, that the Tribunal take judicial notice of the decree of 11th July, 1934, embodied in the Reichsgesetzblatt, Part 1, Page 605, which provided that the Academy of German Law would be a public corporation of the Reich under the supervision of the Reich Ministers of Justice and the Interior, and that their task would be:-
"To promote the reconstruction of German legal life and to realise, in constant close collaboration with the competent legislative organisations, the National Socialist programme in the entire sphere of law."
Secondly, before quoting from the afore-mentioned report of the Academy of Law, I should like to offer in evidence Document 2749-PS, which is Exhibit USA 301. This is the title page of the publication of the Academy of German Law for 1940. It is offered for the purpose of showing that defendant Frank was the president of the Academy of German Law during the period that the above-mentioned secret report of the Academy was made. The document specifically states, and I quote:-
"Reich Minister Dr. Hans Frank, President of the Academy for German Law: 7th year 1940."

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Now, if I may ask your Honours to turn to Document 661-PS, I should first like to quote Lines 6 to 24 of Page 1 of the English text. In the German text, these extracts appear at Page 6, Lines 6 to 10; and Line 22, Page 6 to Line 4, Page 7. I quote:-
"For the carrying out of costly and long term measures for the increase of agricultural production the Government General can, at most, absorb 1 to 1.5 million resettlers, as it is already over-populated. By further absorption of 1.6 million resettlers the 1925 Reich census figure of 133 inhabitants per square kilometre would be reached, which, because of already existing rural over-population and lack of industry, would practically result in a double over-population.

This figure of 1.6 million will barely suffice to transfer from the Reich:

The Jews from the liberated East (over 600,000), groups of the remaining Jews, preferably the younger age groups from Germany proper, Austria, Sudetengau and the Protectorate (altogether over 1 million)."

Continuing the quotation, the report goes on with respect to transfers from the Reich:
"The Polish intelligentsia, who have been politically active in the past, and potential political leaders; the leading economic personalities, comprising owners of large estates, industrialists and business men, etc.; the peasant population, so far as it has to be removed in order to carry out, by strips of German settlements, the encirclement of Polish territories in the East."
Next I quote the last paragraph on Page 1 of the English text. The German text is at Page 8, Lines 3-10:-
"In order to relieve the living space of the Poles in the Government General as well as in the liberated East, one should temporarily remove cheap labour by the hundreds of thousands, employ them for a few years in the Old Reich, and thereby hamper their native biological propagation. (Their assimilation into the Old Reich must be prevented.)"
Finally, I quote from the last paragraph of Page 2 of the English text. In the German text it is the last five lines of Page 40:-
"Strictest care is to be taken that secret circulars, memoranda and official correspondence which contain instructions detrimental to the Poles are kept steadily under lock and key so that they will not some day fill the White Books printed in Paris or the U.S.A."
Your Honours will recall, from your own experiences, the vicious propaganda campaigns conducted by Nazi Germany to discredit the Polish books when they made their appearance in countries friendly to Poland. The last paragraph from this document which I have just read gives the lie to that whole Nazi propaganda campaign.

The plans for the deportation of thousands of innocent people, which are set forth in the document from which I have just quoted, were not mere theories spun by lawyers. They represented, as the next three documents to be offered in evidence will show, a programme which was, in fact, ruthlessly executed.

I next offer in evidence Document 2233-PS-G, the Frank Diaries, 1939, from 25th October to 15th December, which is Exhibit USA 302. This document was obtained from the 7th Army Documentation Centre at

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Heidelberg. I quote from the last paragraph of Page 1, carrying over to the first two lines of Page 2 of the English text. In the German text, the statements appear at Page 19, Lines 19 to 28. Defendant Frank stated, and I quote:-
"The Reichsfuehrer S.S." - meaning Himmler - "wishes that all Jews be evacuated from the newly gained Reich territories. Up to February approximately 1,000,000 people are to be brought in this way into the Government General. The families of good racial extraction present in the occupied Polish territory (approximately 4,000,000 people) should be transferred into the Reich and individually housed, thereby being uprooted as a people."
I next offer in evidence Document EC-305, which is Exhibit USA 303. This exhibit is the top secret minutes of a meeting held on 12th February, 1940, under the chairmanship of the defendant Goering on "Questions Concerning the East." The document was found in the captured O.K.W. files. Himmler and defendant Frank, likewise, were present at this meeting.

I first quote Lines 15 to 17 of Page 1 of the English text. These extracts are found in the front page, Lines 1 to 8 of the German text. The minutes state, and I quote:-

"By way of introduction the General Field Marshal" - meaning defendant Goering - " explained that the strengthening of the war potential of the Reich must be the chief aim of all measures to be taken in the East."
I next quote the first two lines of the last paragraph on Page 1 of the English text. The German text appears at Page 2, Lines 2 to 4.

The task is to obtain the greatest possible agricultural production from the new Eastern Gaus without regard to questions of ownership."

I then quote from the first sentence of the second paragraph of Page 2 of the English text. This is at Page 3, Lines 22- 24 of the German text.
"Special questions concerning the Government General:

The Government General will have to receive the Jews who are ordered to emigrate from Germany and the New Eastern Gaus."

Finally, I quote paragraph numbered 2 under Roman numeral II of Page 2 of the English text. These statements appear in the German text at Page 4, Lines 3-19.
"The following reported on the situation in the Eastern territories: 2. Reichsstatthalter Gauleiter Forster, who said, 'The population of the Danzig/West Prussia Gau (newly acquired territories) is 1.5 million, of whom 240,000 are Germans, 850,000 well-established Poles and 300,000 immigrant Poles, Jews and asocials (1,800 Jews). 87,000 persons have been evacuated, 40,000 of these from Gotenhafen. From there also the numerous shirkers, who are now looked after by welfare, will have to be deported to the Government General. Therefore an evacuation of 20,000 additional persons can be counted on for the current year.'"
Comparable reports were made by other Gauleiters at the meeting. These figures, it may be noted, were only as of February, 1940. The forcible deportations which are reported in the exhibits from which I have just read, did not involve merely ordering the unfortunate victims to leave their homes and take up new residences elsewhere. These deportations were accomplished

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according to plan, in an utterly brutal and inhuman manner. Document 1918-PS, which is Exhibit USA 304, affords striking proof of this fact, and I offer it in evidence. This is a speech delivered by Himmler to officers of the S.S. on a day commemorating the presentation of the Nazi flag. It is contained in a compilation of speeches delivered by Himmler, which was captured by the U.S. Counter Intelligence Corps. The exact date of the speech does not appear in the exhibit, but its contents plainly show that it was delivered some time after Poland had been overrun. I quote from the second to the eighth lines of Page 1 of the English text. In the German text, this quotation appears on Page 52, Lines 2 to 10. In this speech Himmler said, and I quote:-
"Very frequently a member of the Waffen S.S. thinks about the deportation of the people living here. These thoughts came to me today when watching the very difficult work out there performed by the Security Police, supported by your men, who help them a great deal. Exactly the same thing happened in Poland in weather 40 degrees below zero, where we had to haul away thousands, tens of thousands, hundreds of thousands; where we had to have the toughness - you should hear this but also forget it again - to shoot thousands of leading Poles."
I repeat the latter part of the statement:
"Where we had to have the toughness - you should. hear this but also forget it again - to shoot thousands of leading Poles."
Those Poles from the incorporated area who managed to survive the journey to the Government General could look forward, at best, to extreme hardship, and exposure to every form of degradation and brutality. Your Honours will recall defendant Frank's statement contained in Document EC-344-16, now Exhibit USA 297, which was introduced a short while ago, that the Polish economy would be reduced to the absolute minimum necessary for the bare existence of the population.

Your Honours will also recall defendant Goering's directive in Document EC-410, now Exhibit USA 298, also introduced a few moments ago, that all industrial enterprises in the Government General not absolutely necessary for the maintenance of the naked existence of the Polish population must be removed to Germany. A bare and naked existence, by the precepts of the conspirators, meant virtual starvation.

For the Jews who were forcibly deported to the Government General there was, of course, absolutely no hope. They were, in effect, deported to their graves. The defendant Frank, by his own admissions, had dedicated himself to their complete annihilation. I refer your Honours to the Frank Diaries, Conference Volume, 1941, October to December, which is Document 2233-PS-D, and which was introduced by Major Walsh as Exhibit USA 281. The particular statement to which I want to call your attention particularly is on Page 4, Document 2233-PS. I believe it appears at Page 77, Lines 9 and 10 of the German text. I quote the following from defendant Frank's statement:-

"We must annihilate the Jews, wherever we find them, and wherever it is possible."
I turn next to that aspect of the conspirators' programme which involved the forcible Germanisation of persons in the incorporated area who were deemed to possess German blood. I refer now again to the incorporated area, to those persons who were deemed to possess German blood. Such

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persons, the evidence will show, were given the choice of the concentration camp or submission to Germanisation. Himmler was the chief executioner of this programme, and initially I should like to introduce a few documents which disclose the powers bestowed upon him, and his conception of his task.

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