The Nizkor Project: Remembering the Holocaust (Shoah)

Twenty-Third Day: Wednesday, 19th December, 1945
(Part 3 of 8)

[COLONEL STOREY continues]

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In connection with the persecution of the Jews, we again find the S.A. performing its function of propaganda agency for the Nazis. In this connection it was the function of the S.A. to create and foster among the people an anti-Jewish spirit and sentiment, without which the terrifying Crimes against Humanity perpetrated against the Jewish race certainly would not have been tolerated by any civilised peoples. Substantial and convincing evidence of this function is to be found in these bound volumes of Der S.A.- Mann. Throughout the period covered by these volumes there appeared in this publication article after article consisting of the most cruel and vicious sort of anti- religious propaganda, designed to engender and foster hatred and hostility toward the Jewish race.

I will refer to only a few of the titles appearing. On 27th July, 1935, at Page 4, the title is "Finish up with the Jew." That is shown, if your Honour pleases, in Document 3030, Pages 16 to 18 there listed. In the issue of 2nd February, 1935, Page 5, "The Jewish World Danger"; on 20th July, 1935, Page 4, "Jewish Worries"; on 1st June, 1935, Page 1, "Jews Are Not Wanted Here." And then follows a statement: "Then, also, outside of the last German village the sign will stand, 'Jews Are Not Wanted Here'; and then, finally, "no German citizen will again cross the threshold of a Jewish store. To achieve this goal is the mission of the S.A. man as the political soldier of the Fuehrer. Next to his word and his explanations stands his example."

Then further on 17th August, 1935, Page 1, "God Save the Jew." Then another under 5th October, 1935, Page 6, the title "The Face of the Jew" (with a portrait of a Jew holding the hammer and sickle).

I will just refer to one or two more of them. Here is one on 23rd November, 1935, Page 2. The title, "The Camouflaged Benjamin -- Jewish Cultural Bolshevism in German Music."

Here is one of 2nd January, 1937, Page 6, a hideous-looking picture, the title being "Roumania to the Jews?"

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I give the final quotation, the last one, 3rd February, 1939, Page 14, the title being "Friends of World Jewry -- Roosevelt and Ickes."

The impressive thing about all these articles is the fact that it was not intended that the philosophies expressed in them should be confined to members of the S.A.; on the contrary, the plan was to educate the members of the S.A. with this iniquitous philosophy, and for the S.A., in turn, to be employed for its dissemination into the minds of the German people. This fact is demonstrated in the introduction to a series of anti-Jewish articles in the paper of 5th December, 1936, at Page 6. I will just read the title. It is found on Page 28 of the same document and the title is as follows: "Grave-Diggers of World Culture." Also on that same page, 28, I quote this statement:--

"We suggest that the comrades especially take notice of this series of articles and see that they are further circulated."
In addition, intensive campaigns were conducted to persuade the public to purchase and read Der S.A.-Mann and the various issues were posted in public places so that the general public might read them. Der S.A.-Mann itself contained several photographs which show particular issues posted upon street bulletin boards; and there are several photographs showing advertising displays, one of which, for example, reads as follows -- this is in the issue of 31st October, 1936:--
"Der S.A.-Mann belongs in every house, every hotel, every inn, every waiting room, and every store."
Also in the issue of 24th August, 1935, at Page 3, there was a group picture of S.A. men on trucks and in front of the trucks were large signs, one of which read:--
"Read the 'Stuermer' and you will know the Jew."
On the same page of the publication I mentioned there is a photograph of what appears be a public rally, at which there is displayed a large poster reading: "He who knows the Jew, knows the Devil!"

THE PRESIDENT: Colonel Storey, the Tribunal expressed its view yesterday that they did not desire to hear cumulative evidence. Is this not rather cumulative?

COLONEL STOREY: I agree with your Honour that possibly it is. I am trying to draw the line on it. I will omit the rest of them.

Now we will pass to the final phase of the function of the S.A. in the conspiracy.

THE PRESIDENT: Perhaps we had better adjourn now for 10 minutes.

(A recess was taken.)

COLONEL STOREY: If your Honour pleases, I have just started on the function of the S.A. in the conspiracy, that is its participation the programme for preparation for warfare.

In this connection, your Honour asked this morning a question about the arresting and police activities of the S.A., and I mentioned that they had declined after 1934. For fear there was some misapprehension, I would like to state that as a police organisation and as an arresting agency they declined steadily after 1934.

We go now into the phase where they went into military preparations, the next phase, and that is the phase with which I deal now. If your Honour pleases, I have here an official government publication issued by

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the British Government in 1943, the title being, "The Nazi Party and Organisations," and I should like to quote as to the organisation and membership of the S.A. from that publication. It is the most authoritative that I have been able to find, and I would like to quote briefly from it:--
"The S.A. was founded in 1921 as a para-military organisation to protect Nazi meetings and leaders, to throw out interrupters and hecklers, to fight political enemies, and to provide pre-military training at a time when the legal 'Reichswehr' vas limited to 100,000 men. Their highest leader is Hitler himself; his deputy is called the Stabschef (Chief of Staff of the S.A.; from 1930 to June, 1934, it was Roehm; from then onwards till his death in May, 1943, Victor Lutze; since August, 1943, Wilhelm Schepmann.) In January, 1933, the S.A. had only 300,000 members. After the seizure of power, its strength increased quickly; at present it has a membership of 1,500,000 to 2,000,000" Now, the date of this is 1943.
We again find the S.A. employed to inculcate a particular Nazi ideology into the minds of the people of Germany. At this point it was the function of the S.A. to prepare Germany -- mentally -- for the waging of a vicious and aggressive war.

At all times, and especially during the period from 1933 to 1939, S.A. leaders emphasised to S.A. members the duty and responsibility of creating and fostering a militaristic spirit throughout Germany. In 1933 Hitler established the so- called S.A. sports programme, and at that time, according to Sturmfuehrer Bayer, in his pamphlet "The S.A.," which I have previously introduced in evidence as Document 2168-PS, the S.A. at that time was "commissioned to obtain and increase the preservation of a warlike power and a warlike spirit as the expression of an aggressive attitude."

In 1937 Hitler renewed the so-called sports programme and, as recited in Document 3050-PS, which is the English translation of these newspaper articles, on Page 12, he made a statement: "for the fostering of a military spirit."

The Organisation Book of the Party is to the same effect, in Document 3220-PS, which is Exhibit USA 323. I quote from a portion of that document -- paragraphs 1 to 3 on Page 1 of the English translation, beginning at the first paragraph:--

"While the political organisation of the N.S.D.A.P. has carried out the political leadership, the S.A. is the training and education instrument of the Party for the realisation of the world philosophical soldier-like attitude.

In conformity with the directives of the Fuehrer given at the time of the Reich Party Meeting of Freedom, the S.A. is, as the voluntary political soldiery, the guarantor of the National Socialist Movement, of the National Socialist Revolution, and of the resurgence of the German people.

Consequently, the young German in the S.A. is being inculcated in the first instance from the standpoint of world philosophy and character, and trained as the bearer of the National Socialist armed will.

Equally important is a suitable education and training of the yearly age groups which the S.A. has to accomplish after they have served their time in the Army. It is the task to keep them for their lifetime in all their spiritual, mental and physical powers on the alert to work for the Movement, the People and the State. They should find their

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best home in the S.A. All that which could divide them economically, culturally, professionally, or socially is being overcome in the S.A. by the spirit of comradeship and manly dignity.

In that manner the S.A. is forming a decisive factor on the path to a popular community. Its spirit should radiate with soldierly tradition and the possibility of application on all existing units outside the movement. To guard them is thus an important mission of the S.A."

A number of the articles which were obviously designed to serve as war propaganda material have been translated; in other cases it has been deemed sufficient to translate merely the titles of articles, the titles in themselves being so descriptive that they disclose the nature and substance of the articles. I should like to refer to a few of these titles on this subject. They are shown on the English translation -- Document 3050-PS, and they are listed on Page 1.

On the question of the Nazi "Lebensraum" philosophy: there is, first, in the issue Of 5th January, 1935, Page 13, the article "The German Living Space." The issue of 10th October, 1936, Page 15, "Our Right, Our Colonies." Another, of 14th October, 1938, Page 3, the title "Space and Folk"; "Colonies for Germany," 2nd January, 1937, Page 4. I should like to quote briefly from that article. I believe that it is on Page 1 of the English translation, Document 3050-PS:--

"The German Ambassador in London, Herr von Ribbentrop, recently, on occasion of a reception in the 'Anglo- German Fellowship' has renewed, in a speech which aroused great interest, the indubitable claim of Germany for the restitution of its colonies which had been snatched away.

Shortly thereafter the Reichsbank president and Reich Minister of Economics, Dr. Schacht, published in the English magazine, 'Foreign Affairs' a detailed article on the German colonial problem."

That is on Page 2, I believe, of the English translation.
"For the rest, Dr. Schacht laid out the categorical demand that Germany must, in order to solve the problem of its raw materials, get colonies, which must be administered by Germany, and in which the German standard currency must be in circulation."
Now, the next group are articles dealing with the Versailles Treaty, and I will only quote from a few of them on Page 3 of that same translation. Here is one of 7th April, 1934, Page 14, "What is the Situation regarding our battle for Equal Rights?" Another is entitled "The Dictate of Versailles," 30th June, 1934, Page 15. Here is a part of it:- -
"The Dictate of Versailles established the political, economical, and financial destruction of Germany in 440 artfully -- one could also say devilishly -- devised paragraphs; this work of ignominy is a sample of endless and partly contradictory repetitions in constantly new forms. Not too many have occupied themselves with this thick book to any great extent, for one could only do it with abomination."
Another title is 7th July, 1934, Page 15, "The Unbearable Limitations on our Fleet." Another one: 19th January, 1935, Page 13, "Versailles after 15 Years." I read a part of it:--
"This terrible word 'Versailles', since a blind nation ratified it, has become a curse for all those who have comprehended the gist of this monstrous product of hatred. The Versailles dictate is Germany's

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fate in the fullest sense of the word. Every German has been affected by this fate during the past 15 years. Therefore, every German down to the last man must also grasp the contents of this dictate so that one single desire, that for its absolute destruction, fills the whole German 'Volk'."
I shall omit the other quotation. The last one I shall refer to is "Versailles Will be Liquidated," 13th February, 1937. If your Honour pleases this is the last paragraph on Page 4 of the English translation. I quote:--
"The National Socialist Movement has again achieved a victory, for since the beginning of the fight there was written on their flags: The liquidation of the Versailles Treaty. For this fight the S.A. marched year after year."
A third group consists of articles describing preparations for war, purportedly being carried on by other nations, found on Page 5 of the same document and I shall refer to just a few of them:

The issue of 26th January, 1935, Page 14, "Military Training of English Youth," showing pictures of Eton students wearing the traditional Eton dress -- tall hats and frock coats -- marching with rifles.

Another one is "The Army of the Soviet Union," dated 16th March, 1935, Page 14.

Another one, 4th April, 1936, Page 15, "The Red Danger in the East."

Another one, 29th August, 1936, Page 10, "Russia Prepares for World War."

Another one, 19th June, 1937, Page 7, "Red Terrorism Nailed Down."

I shall omit the rest of them.

Now, the next is the S.A. participation in the aggressive war phase of the conspiracy -- the preparation by S.A. of the youth of Germany for participation in aggressive warfare. I hardly think I need emphasize that one of the most important steps in carrying out the conspiracy was the training of the youth of Germany in the technique of war, and their preparation physically and spiritually for the waging of aggressive war. To the S.A. was delegated this most important responsibility. I have here Document 3215-PS, Exhibit USA 426, which I offer in evidence, and it is an excerpt from Das Archiv which contains Hitler's characterisation of the task of the S.A. in this respect. It is on Page 1 of the English translation of 3215-PS. I start the reading where it says, "Already in 1920----":

"Already in 1920 by the founding of the National Socialist Sports Troop (S.A.) the Fuehrer established the extensive mission of this S.A. at that time in which he declared in the protocol of its charter:

The Sports Troop (S.A.) shall be the bearer of the military thought of a free people."

In the same sense the Fuehrer said in his book, Mein Kampf:
"Give the German Nation six million bodies perfectly trained in sport, all fanatically inspired by the love of the Fatherland and trained to the highest offensive spirit, and a National Socialist State will, if necessary, have created an army out of them in less than two years."
The military character of the S.A. is demonstrated by its organisational composition. I refer to the chart on the wall, which is our Document 2168-PS, and it is taken from this book, being the pamphlet of the S.A.-Sturmfuehrer, and the chart is taken from the official book. I refer merely to the

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chart and call to the attention your Honour that it was organised into units closely corresponding to those of the German Army. As the Tribunal will see, the organisational scheme consisted of divisions. Going from the top in that pyramidal structure, we see at the top the division; next the brigade, then the regiment, the battalion, the company, the platoon and at the bottom, the squad.

In addition, there were special units and branches, including cavalry, signal corps, engineer corps, and medical corps. There were also, as Bayer pointed out in his pamphlet, three officer training schools. Similarly, S.A. members wore distinctive uniforms adapted to military functions, bore arms, and engaged in training, forced marches, and other military exercises.

S.A. members, moreover, were governed by general service regulations, which closely resembled service regulations of an armed force. They are contained in Document 2820-PS, Exhibit USA 427, which I offer in evidence. If your Honour pleases, they are found at Page 3 of the translation of Document 2820. I will merely refer to a few of them. They provide for punishment, designating them as penal regulations, for disobedience of orders and infractions. The punishments which are provided demonstrate the militaristic character of the S.A. and include the following:

Reprimand in private; reprimand in presence of superiors and announcement thereof at formations; prohibition of the right to wear service uniform; house arrest, arrest and confinement in gaol; demotion in rank, prohibition of right to carry weapons.

Preparation for war through the S.A. training programme was begun in Germany as early as 1933, but the scope of this programme was not made public because of the fact that it actually constituted a violation of the Treaty of Versailles. The strict secrecy with which the programme was surrounded is shown in Document D-44, Exhibit USA 428, which I offer in evidence.

On Page 1 of the English translation -- this is from the Supreme Command of the S.A., Chief of Staff, and it has to do with publications on the S.A., is the following:

"Further to my instruction Z II 1351Z33 dated 11th July 33, I find cause to ask all S.A. authorities to exercise the greatest caution with regard to any publicity given to the S.A. service, not only in the Press, but also in the information and news sheets of the individual S.A. units.

Only during the last few days, the Reich Ministry of the Interior, at the request of the Foreign Office, has given strict instructions to all Reich authorities according to which the most severe control is to be exercised on all publications which might give other countries an occasion to allege German infringements of the terms of the Versailles Treaty.

As is known from the Geneva negotiations, our opponents have piled up material collected in Germany and submitted to them, which they use against us on every occasion during the conferences.

From this point of view, the information sheets circulating among the subordinate S.A. units cause the liveliest concern. I hold all higher S.A. leaders responsible that any such internal information sheets, appearing in the district of their command, are submitted to the most stringent control before they go into print, and I feel compelled to draw

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attention to the liability to prosecution for treason as pronounced in official instructions issued in the last few days in cases where such reports, printed no doubt in good faith, are published and therefore exposed to the danger of falling into the wrong hands.

On principle, pictures of the special technical units of the S.A. and S.S., in particular of the motorised signals, and possibly also of the air squads which now exist outside these formations, are forbidden, such pictures enabling other countries to prove the alleged formation of technical troop units."

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