The Nizkor Project: Remembering the Holocaust (Shoah)

The Skinhead International: Portugul

Sporadic episodes of Skinhead violence have occurred in Portugal in the last serveral years. The U.S. Department of State, in its Country Reports on Human Rights for 1993, cited Portuguese press accounts of "a number of racially-motivated incidents in 1993 that were apparently perpetrated by small, loosely knit 'skinhead' groups." The targets of Skinhead assaults have tended to be immigrants, both legal and illegal, from Portugal's former African colonies. A rampage by 50 Skinheads in Lisbon on June 11, 1995, left a Cape Verdean immigrant dead and 12 people of African origin injured. Nine Skins have been detained.

In October 1989, Jose Carvelho, a leftist activist, was killed in Lisbon by Skinheads who were demonstrating at the headquarters of the Socialist Revolutionary Party. Three other party members were injured in the attack.

Skinhead violence reportedly impelled the Portuguese government in 1990 to establish a committee to monitor the treatment of minority groups.

Several Skinhead gangs have displayed neo-Nazi symbols at matches of Benfica, a leading soccer team from Lisbon.

Two Lisbon-based publications, As Runas and Final Solution, have been advertised in foreign Skinhead and neo-Nazi publications.

A Portuguese Skinhead band, Guarda de Ferro (Iron Guard), has recorded on the French label Rebelles Europeens. Its songs include such titles as "Skinheads," "Botas" (boots), and "Portugal aos Portugueses" (Portugal for the Portuguese). Anti-Defamation League, 63)

Work Cited

Anti-Defamation League. The Skinhead International: A Worldwide Survey of Neo-Nazi Skinheads. New York: Anti-Defamation League, 1995. Anti-Defamation League, 823 United Nations Plaza, New York, NY 10017.

Disclaimer: not all skinheads are neo-nazis or white supremacists. There are many skinheads who are non- or anti-racist, and who come from a variety of different religious and cultural backgrounds. Nizkor recognizes their achievements in anti-racism: they are part of the traditional, non-racist skinhead subculture and are not the perpetrators of the hate crimes discussed here.

Unless otherwise specified, the word "skinhead" within these pages refers only to neo-Nazi and white supremacist skinheads, the perpetrators of hate crimes and participants in racist organizations. We cannot edit the body of the text above, because it was not written by Nizkor, and to change the wording would be fraudulent. Please keep in mind that not all skinheads are racist.

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