The Nizkor Project: Remembering the Holocaust (Shoah)

Ethnocultural Groups
The Justice System in Canada
A Review of the Issues

Unequal Treatment in Criminal Justice Processing

91. Michael Jackson, Locking Up Natives in Canada (Canadian Bar Association, 1988), at 2-3.

92. File, Gaps in Obtaining Justice.

93. Etherington, Review of Multiculturalism.

94. Jean-Paul Brodeur, Access to Justice and Equality of Treatment (Ottawa: Law Reform Commission of Canada, 1991).

95. Archibald Kaiser, The Criminal Code of Canada: A Review Based on the Minister's Reference (Ottawa: Law Reform Commission of Canada, 1991.

96. T.J. Samual and R. Faustino-Santos, "Canadian Immigrants and Criminality," International Migration, 29(1) (1990).

97. Derrick Thomas, "The Foreign-born in the Federal Prison Population," unpublished paper presented at Ottawa: Canadian Law and Society Conference, June 1993, and Derrick Thomas, "The Social Integration of Immigrants in Canada" in S. Globerman, ed., Issues in Immigration Policy, to be published.

95. Robert M. Gordon and Jacquelyn Nelson, Census '93: The Report of the 1993 Census of Provincial Correctional Centres in British Columbia (Victoria, B.C.: B.C. Ministry of the Attorney General, 1993).

99. A.H. Richmond and Warren E. Kalbach, Factors in the Adjustment of Immigrants and their Descendants (Ottawa: Statistics Canada, 1980).

100. R. Beaujot, K.G. Basavarajappa and R.B.P. Verrna, Income of Immigrants in Canada, Current Demographic Analysis, Catalogue 91-527E (Ottawa: Minister of Supply and Services, 1988).

101. R. Lescop, "Resultats d'analyse d'un echantillion de prevues blancs et non-blancs arretes sur le territoire du SPCUM en 1957" in Commission des droits de la personne de Quebec, Enquete sur les relations entre les corps policiers et les minorities visible et ethniques, Annexe IV (Montreal: Ministere des communications, 1988).

102. D. Clairrnont, W. Barnwell, and A. O'Malley, "Sentencing Disparity and Race in the Nova Scotia Justice System," Appendix 4, _Report of the Royal Commission on the Prosecution of Donald Marshall, Jr_., 4(1988).

103. C. Spohn, J. Gruhl and S. Welch, "The Effect of Race on Sentencing: A Re-examination of an Unsettled Question," Law and Society Review," 16(1) (1981-82).

104. M.L. Friedland, Access to the Law (Toronto: CarswelVMethuen, 1975).

105. Etherington, Review of Multiculturalism.

106. Stephen Lewis, Report on Race Relations in Ontario, (June 1992).

107. Cited in Brodeur, Access to Justice, at 60.

108. Etherington, _Review of Multiculturalism_.

109. Andre Normandeau, "Police, Race and Ethnicity in Montreal," Crimcare, 4(3) (1988).

110. Brodeur, Access to Justice, at 80-81.

111. Martin's Annual Criminal Code, Canada Law Book Co. (1990).

112. Etherington, Review of Multiculturalism.

113. C. Spoun, G. Gruhl and S. Welch, "The Impact of Ethnicity and Gender of Defendants on the Decision to Reject or Dismiss Felony Charges," Criminology, 25(1) (1987).

114. J. Petersilia, "Racial Disparities in the Criminal Justice System: Executive Summary of the Rand Institute Study" in D. Georges-Abeyie, ed., The Criminal Justice System and Blacks (New York: 1984).

115. Etherington, Review of Multiculturalism.

116. Ibid.

117. Ibid.

118 Gallup Canada, Inc., Focus Groups. Prairie Research Associates, Duty Counsel Systems: Summary Report (Ottawa: Department of Justice Canada, 1993).

120. Brodeur, Access to Justice, at 101.

121. D. Clairmont, et. al., "Sentencing Disparity" is the only Canadian research to date and it is inconclusive on the issue.

122. J. Petersilia, "Racial Disparities in the Criminal Justice System: A Summary," Crime and Delinquency, 31(1) (1985)

123. G. Kleck, "Racial Discrimination and Sentencing: A Critical Evaluation of the Evidence with Additional Evidence on the Death Penalty," American Sociological Review, 46 (1981); and "Life Support for an Ailing Hypothesis: Modes of Describing the Evidence for Racial Discrimination in Sentencing," Law and Human Behaviour, 9(3) (1985).

124. Clairmont, et al., cited in Etherington, Review of Multiculturalism.

125. Ibid.

126. Etherington, Review of Multiculturalism.

124. Clairmont, et al., cited in Etherington, Review of Multiculturalism. 125. Ibid.

126. Etherington, Review of Multiculturalism.

127. David Pomerant, Language of Accused and Multicultural Issues (Ottawa: Law Reform Commission of Canada, 1991).

128. Ibid.

129. Ibid.

130. Ibid.

131. Etherington, Review of Multiculturalism.

132. Leo Carroll and Margaret E. Mondrick, "Racial Bias in the Decision to Grant Parole," Law and Society Review, 11:1 (Fall 1976), pp. 93-107.

133. Petersilia, "Racial Disparities."

134. Etherington, Review of Multiculturalism.

135. Ibid.

136. Ibid.

137. Ibid.

138. Ibid.

139. Ibid

140. File, Gaps in Obtaining Justice.

141. Etherington, Review of Multiculturalism.

142. Site visit to the Toronto Bail Supervision Program, 1992.

143. For a general discussion on addressing problems of changing attitudes and behaviour see Howard Schuman and Michael J. Johnson, "Attitudes and Behaviour," Annual Review of Sociology, 2 (1976), at 161207.

144. Etherington, Review of Multiculturalism.

145. Gordon and Nelson, Census '93.

146. Clairmont, et. al., "Sentencing Disparity."

147. Etherington, Review of Multiculturalism.

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