The Nizkor Project: Remembering the Holocaust (Shoah)

Hate-Motivated Violence

Footnotes (Introduction)

1. Peritz, "Vandals deface seven synagogues with swastikas, anti-Semitic slogan", The [Montreal] Gazette, Tuesday, January 5, 1993, p. A1.

2. R. DiManno, "The quiet dignity of a Tamil beaten by racists", The Toronto Star, Wednesday, June 16, 1993, p. A7.

3. These problems are discussed at pp. 29-30 of this paper.

4. Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission, Report of the National Inquiry into Racist Violence in Australia, Racist Violence (Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service, 1991), pp. 10-13.

5. R. Oakley, Racial Violence and Harassment in Europe, a consultant's report prepared for the Council of Europe, ref. MG-CR (91) 3 rev.2 ([Strasbourg]: Council of Europe, [1993]), pp. 12-13. 6 Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, being Schedule B of the Canada Act 1982 (U.K.), 1982, c. 11, s. 2(b)(d)

7. League for Human Rights of B'nai Brith Canada, 1992 Audit of Anti- Semitic Incidents (Downsview, Ont.: B'nai Brith Canada, 1993), Table 1, p. 5. The audit, on p. 3, states that incidents are classified into two categories: (a) vandalism, defined as an act involving physical damage to property, and (b) harassment, defined as any incident of abuse or threat directed against an individual, group or institution. Hate propaganda directed quite specifically at Jews is included in the harassment classification.

8. Ibid., pp. 5-6, 6-7, 11.

9. See S. Semenak, "Stabbing victim was dying of AIDS: Friends say killing was part of recent wave of attacks on gays", The [Montreal] Gazette, Tuesday, March 21, 1989, pp. A 1 -A2; S. Semenak, "Gay Bashing: Montreal gays say it's getting worse as gangs cruise streets for trouble", The [Montreal] Gazette, Monday, March 27, 1989, p. AS; A. Picard, "Hate slaying of gay man stuns Montreal: Police charge four neo-Nazi skinheads", The [Toronto] Globe and Mail, Friday, December 5, 1992, pp. A1-A2.

10. C. Petersen, "A Queer Response to Bashing: Legislating Against Hate" (1991) 15 Queen's L. J. p. 237.

11. See M. McClintock, "Gays seek hate crime law", The Ottawa Sunday Sun, May 16, 1993, p. 10, which pointed out that since January, 1993, all complaints of attacks on homosexuals and other hate crimes have been followed up by the new Ottawa Police Bias Crimes Unit, which up to the date of the article had investigated five cases of attacks on gays; G. Swainson, "Hate crimes on rise, police say", The Toronto Star, Wednesday, June 16, 1993, p. A7, which stated that Metro police were expected to release a report to the Metro Police Services Board in July, 1993 showing that about 70 crimes related to race, nationality, religion or sexual orientation have been reported since February 1993.

12. According to statistics compiled from the 1991 Census, although the share of the Canadian population made up of immigrants has remained relatively stable during the past several decades, there has been a change over the years concerning where immigrants have come from. Overall, in 1991 there were 5.3 million immigrants in Canada (defined as persons who are, or have been, landed immigrants in Canada) representing 16 percent of the total population. While the majority of the immigrant population was born in Europe, this proportion of the immigrant population declined from 62 percent in the 1986 Census to 55 percent in the 1991 Census. The percentage of immigrants born in Asia increased from 18 percent in 1986 to 25 percent in 1991. Almost one-half (48 percent) of recent immigrants who came to Canada between 1981 and 1991 were born in Asian countries. Over one-half (57 percent) of the immigrant population lived in one of the three largest metropolitan areas (Montreal, Toronto, and Vancouver). For the first time, the Census also counted nonpermanent residents (persons who held student or employment authorizations, Minister's permits or who were refugee claimants). There were 223,500 nonpermanent residents in 1991, representing slightly less than one percent of the population. Persons born in Asia represented the largest proportion (55 percent) of nonpermanent residents. Nearly three quarters (72 percent) of all nonpermanent residents lived in Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver. Statistics Canada, Census 91, Immigration and Citizenship: The Nation (Ottawa: Statistics Canada, 1992), pp. 1-2. See also "The Daily", Statistics Canada, Tuesday, December 8, 1992, for a summary of this 1991 Census document.

13. See T. J. Samuel, Visible Minorities in Canada: A Projection (Toronto: Canadian Advertising Foundation, 1992). By Mr. Samuel's calculations, the number of visible minorities in Canada rose from 1.6 million in 1986 to about 2.6 million in 1991 and will rise to about 5.7 million in 2001_an increase of over 3.5 times during the 15 years. The term "visible minority" is defined by Mr. Samuel as meaning persons who are nonwhite, non-Caucasian and nonaboriginal, comprising persons who trace their origins to Asia, Africa, the Caribbean, and Latin America.

14. Canadian Multiculturalism Act, R.S.C. 1985 (5th Supp.), c. 25.

15. Criminal Code, R.S.C. 1985, c. C-35, ss. 318-319.

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