The Nizkor Project: Remembering the Holocaust (Shoah)

The Trial of Adolf Eichmann

Session 33
(Part 5 of 5)

eichmann, Adolf Eichmann, Eichmann trial, eichmann trial,
	holocaust, Jewish holocaust
State Attorney Bach: The next document is a collection of documents following on that last instruction. Our number is 389. It is a document which was also shown to the Accused and was given the number T/37(132). All in the matter of Jews of Argentinian citizenship. And here we have this order from Eichmann, which was in fact directed not only to France, but to all Stapoleitstellen, Stapostellen, to all commanders of the Security Police; and there are various reports about Argentinian nationals who were arrested and this time the reference is to the French zone only. There are reports about places where there are no Argentinians, and further on there is a list of Jews who are Argentinian nationals and who were arrested as a result of that order.

Presiding Judge: This will be marked T/501.

State Attorney Bach: Another document - our No. 720. Here, to my regret, I have only the original. We shall provide the photocopy later. For the time being we shall submit it as it is, with two copies. Roethke says: "...Since the Italian Consulate General has in recent times repeatedly taken a quite incomprehensible and clearly pro-Jewish attitude, I must, in future, refuse all direct contact with this consular representation..."

Presiding Judge: This will be marked T/502.

State Attorney Bach: The next document - No. 951. The German Foreign Ministry asks the Accused for his opinion about the proposal to appoint Du Paty de Clam as Commissioner General for Jewish Questions in place of Darquier de Pellepoix who has resigned. It is pointed out that Du Paty de Clam is the son of the officer who arrested Captain Dreyfus at the time.

Presiding Judge: This will be marked T/503.

State Attorney Bach: The following document is the reply, signed by Guenther, No. 952, and in it the man's past is described once more, whose son he is, Dreyfus is mentioned, and there is mention of his anti-Jewish activities and that he was a fierce opponent of England. And it says further: "If one is to judge by his past, clearly Du Paty is likely to bring with him the prior qualifications for the necessary meticulous administration of the Commission General for Jewish Questions."

Presiding Judge: This will be marked T/504.

Judge Halevi: What is "the French Militia"?

State Attorney Bach: I think this was a French fascist organization.

State Attorney Bach: The next document points to a special success of the Security Police and the SD in Paris. Our number is 243.

"This morning the Jewish children's home 'Children's Colony' in Izieu-Ain was liquidated. Altogether 41 children aged three to thirteen were arrested. Furthermore, it was possible to arrest the whole Jewish staff consisting of ten persons, including five women. Cash or other valuables could not be seized." In addition it says here that the transport to Drancy will take place on 7 April 1944. Signed: Barbie.

Presiding Judge: This will be marked T/505.

State Attorney Bach: Our number 872. Here the Court will again see, by the signature at the end: Knochen signed on the right, and on the left appears the signature of Brunner, SS Hauptsturmfuehrer. To IVB4: Categories of Jewish persons to be arrested. There are plenty of details here to the effect that always the whole family has to be arrested - all the relatives, parents, children, brothers, sisters, small children from children's homes. All have to be included in the operation and, in order to save labour and petrol, all the Jews living near the person to be arrested have also to be taken.

On the last page, in paragraph 8, there is mention, for the first time, of a per head premium (Kopfgeld). In accordance with instructions from the Head Office for Reich Security a prize per head may be paid for Jews who are in hiding and in disguise. This has to be handled on an individual basis. The prizes must not be too high but they must be attractive.

Presiding Judge: Where is this?

State Attorney Bach: The eighth paragraph. "In principle the premium must only be paid after the arrest of the Jews. After the arrest, the cash belonging to the Jew is determined through the card index entry. Out of this sum the premium is taken from the Jew and handed over to the informer." That is to say, the premium paid to the informer has to be deducted from the money taken from the Jew, in payment for the arrest of the Jews.

Judge Halevi: What is "V-man"?

State Attorney Bach: That is the informer. He says that thanks to the prizes additional labour is saved, and the V- man, apparently Vertrauensmann (confidential agent) may be paid immediately on his success.

[The document was marked T/506.]

State Attorney Bach: The next document, No. 314. Here there was apparently a request from the Foreign Ministry concerning a Jew named Lang, and Guenther says that, in the interest of completion of tasks important for the war effort, his present whereabouts will not be ascertained.

Presiding Judge: This will be marked T/507.

State Attorney Bach: The last document relating to France is No. 310. It was also published in I.M.T. Volume 38, page 25. It is the final report of what was called "M-Aktion" (Operation M). It deals with the seizing of property under the instructions of Reichsleiter Rosenberg.

Presiding Judge: The activity in which this morning's witness took part.

State Attorney Bach: There is mention here of 69,619 Jewish homes; of movable property comprising 1,079,373 cubic metres.

Presiding Judge: On what page is this?

State Attorney Bach: This appears on page 8. After all the listings of the looted property the number of homes is mentioned.

Presiding Judge: What was the number of cubic metres?

State Attorney Bach: "The furniture and inventory shipped off amounts altogether to 1,079,373 cubic metres freight capacity." This is stated at the end of the summary. In order to transport this property 26,984 freight cars were needed - 674 whole trains. 11,695,000 Reichsmarks were collected in foreign currency and securities, and two million kilogrammes of scrap metal, scrap paper and textiles seized, and so on and on, furniture, etc. And it is also recorded how many people took part in this "achievement" as it is called.

[This document was marked T/508.]

State Attorney Bach: As an appendix to France, I should also like to submit document No. 1188. There is a small country named Liechtenstein and the Head Office for Reich Security has received information that there are some Jews in Liechtenstein who still frequent a certain Cafe in Liechtenstein,* {*In document 1188: Buchs (a neighbouring Swiss border town)} eat there and feel comfortable there. So Suhr, an assistant of the Accused, writes to the Foreign Ministry that he has received information about all these details, that the Jews still go to the Hotel "Vaduzer-Hof" and that they "enjoy far-reaching support and assistance with naturalization from the Government of the Principality of Liechtenstein and also with their business activities. This is done in particular by government Secretary Ferdinand Nigg, who is said to belong to a Freemasons' Lodge.

"Since the Government of the Principality of Liechtenstein accordingly continues to demonstrate an attitude friendly to the Jews, I ask you to find out whether there is a possibility to put an end to these intolerable conditions in that small country."
Presiding Judge: Was Liechtenstein occupied?

State Attorney Bach: It was not occupied, but this makes no difference, IVB4 is ever vigilant.

Presiding Judge: This document will be marked T/509.

State Attorney Bach: Your Honours, I have now concluded our evidence concerning France. I could go on to Belgium, but I would not object if you were to decide to continue tomorrow morning.

Presiding Judge: Yes, this is not an easy task.

State Attorney Bach: I could submit a few more documents and save us time tomorrow morning.

Presiding Judge: If you are not tired.

State Attorney Bach: No, I am not tired.

Presiding Judge: Very well, for the sake of order, let us continue.

State Attorney Bach: I shall later also let the Court have a list of documents which I have submitted in connection with France, but which are also essential in connection with Belgium. The Court will remember that a large number of telegrams from the Accused referred to France as well as to Belgium and Holland, and sometimes it is difficult to understand the documents I now submit without reference to the general instructions.

The first document is our number 707. Eichmann informs the Commanders of the Security Police in Paris, Brussels and The Hague that he has recently received secret information that, in many cases, Jews have acquired the identity cards of Belgian civilian workers, and perhaps also of other foreign civilian workers, by purchase at a high price, and that they try to emigrate, mainly to Belgium. He goes on to say:

"I inform you hereof and request you to instruct the frontier posts to intensify measures of surveillance. In case of success, the Jews concerned are to be arrested and handed over to the competent State Police agency at their last place of domicile. In case foreign nationals should be involved, criminal proceedings are to be instituted against them, and after they have served their penalty, protective custody until the end of the War must be demanded for them. If the occasion arises, the measures taken are to be reported to this office immediately."
Presiding Judge: This document is marked T/510.

State Attorney Bach: The next document is Prosecution document 1344. Dannecker drafts a letter, Knochen signs it. He sends it to IVB4. He refers to the meeting of specialists for Jewish Questions of 4 March to which we have already frequently referred.

"It was agreed between the officers responsible for the Dutch, Belgian and French areas to introduce the designation of the Jews jointly, i.e. at the same time. In Holland, as well as in our area of jurisdiction, the preparations have already proceeded to the point where one can speak of coordination of all the participating offices."
And then he says:
"Dealing with the Jews in the occupied French areas, as well as in the Dutch areas, makes their designation urgently necessary, since otherwise real surveillance is impossible because of the scarcity of police forces. Furthermore, the designation the Jews must be effected simultaneously in all the occupied areas of the West, since it constitutes a further step on the road to the Final Solution of the Jewish Question."
And here follows a complaint against a man of whom we shall hear again, SS Brigadefuehrer (Brigadier) Reder, who does not seem to approve of the introduction of compulsory designation - this was stated earlier. He intends to agree to it in his area of jurisdiction only if instructions are received from higher authority. And thus Knochen requests:
"I therefore suggest to inform SS Brigadefuehrer Reder accordingly, so that there will be no further obstacles to the arrangement envisaged."
Presiding Judge: This document is marked T/511.

State Attorney Bach: The next document is Prosecution document No. 753. Bargen, who is the representative of the Foreign Ministry in Brussels, writes to the Ministry that the military administration is preparing to carry out the required deportation of 10,000 Jews. This refers to the order I submitted in connection with the French chapter, the order from IVB4 saying that 10,000 Jews have to be deported from Belgium. The military administration thinks that the existing apprehensions can be overcome (there are fears in various quarters that the matter may cause economic damage), but these can be overcome, if the deportation of Belgian Jews is avoided. Therefore, in the first place, Polish, Czech, Russian and other Jews will be selected, which should suffice, theoretically, to reach the target.

Presiding Judge: Is this one of von Thadden's men?

State Attorney Bach: I would not say von Thadden's man. Von Thadden was again specialist Officer for Jewish Questions in the Foreign Ministry. Bargen was the representative of the Foreign Ministry in Brussels, and he keeps the Ministry informed. It would be correct to say that such a document, which relates to the subject of Jews, would reach von Thadden to be dealt with by him.

Presiding Judge: This document is marked T/512.

State Attorney Bach: The next document is Prosecution document No. 710, a telegram from the Accused to the Security Police and the SD in Belgium and Northern France. The important thing here is that the telegram shows that at that time Obersturmfuehrer Burger was also sent there, and he is one of the men of the Accused whom we shall meet again in various places, such as Athens and others.

Presiding Judge: This document is marked T/513.

State Attorney Bach: And here he talks about the fact, reported by Burger over the telephone, "that most of the Jews in Belgium who are destined for deportation possess Dutch or French citizenship." Eichmann proposes to contact the Commanders of the Security Police and the SD in Holland and France, in order to settle the revocation of citizenship of these Jews of Dutch and French nationality, so that his men in Belgium will be able to deport them.

The next document is Prosecution document 759. The same Bargen reports again to the German Foreign Ministry. This time he says that the planned deportation of 10,000 stateless Jews, who are local residents, has already been carried out. He then describes the difficulties caused by the help from the Belgian inhabitants, who enable Jews to hide in their homes. Nevertheless, he hopes that by the end of October it will be possible to deport another 20,000 persons from Belgium.

Presiding Judge: This document is marked T/514.

State Attorney Bach: The next document is Prosecution document 760. Bargen first transmits statistical figures about the total number of Jewish inhabitants in Belgium and reports that of these, 15,000 men, women and children have been deported to the East. Then he also gives a breakdown of their nationalities. The important thing here is the description of the process: "First an order to report for work was issued to those affected by the deportation via the 'Union of Jews.' Since, however, after a while the order to report for work was no longer obeyed because of rumours about the slaughter of Jews, etc., the Jews were seized by police raids and individual arrests." This was camouflage. The Jews were first summoned to work, and when they reported, they were taken and sent to the extermination camps.

Presiding Judge: Was the Foreign Ministry really more active here than in Paris? Why is this whole detailed report written by a Foreign Office man? This is new, isn't it?

State Attorney Bach: Your Honours, I do not know exactly. Of course we have not submitted all the Foreign Ministry reports. Generally speaking, there were two channels. I assume that Abetz in Paris also reported. I only submitted Abetz' papers when they contained something new or special. Usually matters overlapped. As a rule, the Head Office for Reich Security outwitted the Foreign Ministry, sometimes the Foreign Ministry would play a certain game. But in general, there was full reporting from both.

Presiding Judge: Do you also have documents from the SD?

State Attorney Bach: Yes, Your Honour. On the whole, we found more documents of the German Foreign Ministry, because its archives were preserved and seized in their entirety. As for the Head Office for Reich Security, we found documents, for instance, from Paris. And then there are joint reports, for instance in connection with Belgium. Knochen and Eichmann's men in Northern France took an interest in Belgium as well. This was almost one single unit.

Presiding Judge: And these are documents seized in Berlin?

State Attorney Bach: Those from Bargen were seized in the archives of the Foreign Ministry.

Presiding Judge: I should like to announce that tomorrow's afternoon Session will end at 5.30 p.m., in order to leave time for attendance at the memorial meeting for the late State Attorney.

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